Existentialism was born against Age of Reason in order to reject abstract thinking and absoluteness of reason. Existentialists have claims and evidences to support their idea. They are trying to find absolute truth without absolute thinking because of this they will look for the truth all the eternity. In this essay, I will point out the existentialists’ claims in terms of denying absolute reason.
First of all, reason is highest creation of mind and people have ability to think what they want. They use their minds to reach the knowledge and provide the capability to solve problems. The first claim is that reason is a part of human nature that is limited therefore reason is limited, too. People consider that science is an objective way to solve problems and reflect reality to the society. Existentialists claim that science has this power from its strict limitations. Beyond this reality, different scientific results are called absolute but this is impossible to call them absolute at the same time. There should be one truth and one absolute. Science has a judge to find truth and when it errs it has a judge to change truth. The old truth isn’t a truth anymore.
Our experiences and intentions are hidden by our subconscious. If our subconscious is slight, they will be brought surface of our actions and thoughts. Our conscious has limitations so does reason but subconscious doesn’t have limitations. Because of this, existentialists think that reason cannot be absolute.
Absolute Understanding [This essay was my first in Philosophy 201. I have another that is similar but different which I wrote at the end of the term. Read both.] Absolute Understanding An elephant was brought to a group of blind men who had never encountered such an animal before. One felt a leg and reported that an elephant is a great living pillar. Another felt the trunk and reported that an ...
Cause and effect relationship is concerned as determinism and it is approval when the scientist is in the state of being impersonal observation and experiment. As existentialists state, being impersonal cannot deal with personal experience. In addition to this responsibility is one of our basic experiences. “ Existentialism will teach us that we have to admit experience as evidence.”(Roubiczek, 1-17) If we don’t admit we cannot understand what we feel and we don’t feel responsibility for our actions. Without our experience we think only in an objective way and being impersonal doesn’t help us to deal with our feelings. Existentialists show these statements as their claims but I cannot find any relationship between these claims and absolute thinking. They are mentioning about another subject.
Age of Reason is against theology because theology starts with an accepted truth. According to me the truth is believing in God. On the other hand philosophy start with presuppositions to find the truth by using unlimited mind. Roubiczek claims that in this material world we should accept given facts and these facts should be our starting points. I think this kind of belief is limited our asking questions about our existence. One who believes in God accepted that God created everything but cannot ask how god exists. It seems to me that everyone asks whatever he/she wants to. While one is asking, he will discover the absolute truth and reason.
Moreover, Kierkegaard defends his faith in behalf of morality and religion. According to him surrendering our inner voice is taking risk. He believed that when we give up rational thinking and reasoning, our minds transcends bars. However, he thought that Christianity is an absurd religion he believed this religion. I don’t understand how can man believe something, which is absolutely absurd for him. It seems to me his claim is depend on absurdity and he called this like taking risks.
Finally, I mentioned about the points of Existentialists and their claims. Human beings can reach absolute thinking; there is nothing to limit them. Existentialists’ justification for their claims is just accepting god’s existence without asking any questions. Reason is an absolute way to reach the truth; nobody should have starting points for their lives and beliefs. When they find answers to their questions they will exist and they cannot do this without thinking in an absolute way. Absolute reason and thinking are reasons for our existence.
Some Ways to Critique a Worldview When analyzing someone's worldview ( = that person's overall philosophical perspective on reality), there are a number of errors which you should look out for. These errors represent the different ways in which one's worldview can be exposed as being philosophically inadequate. They are by no means exhaustive of all the different ways in which a given worldview ...