1. What is recombinant DNA?
Recombinant DNA is a form of artificial DNA that is created by combining two or more sequences that would not normally occur together.
2. Give a brief history of the development of recombinant DNA.
The recombinant DNA technique was first proposed by Peter Lobban, a graduate student, with A. Dale Kaiser at the Stanford University Department of Biochemistry. The technique was then realized by Lobban and Kaiser; Jackson, Symons and Berg; and Stanley Norman Cohen, Chang, Herbert Boyer and Helling, in 1972–74.
3. How is recombinant DNA made? Use these terms, restriction enzymes, ligation, plasmids, and bacteria.
In terms of genetic modification, it is created through the introduction of relevant DNA into an existing organismal DNA, such as the plasmids of bacteria, to code for or alter different traits for a specific purpose, such as antibiotic resistance.
4. Explain one use of recombinant DNA in each of the following fields
a. Medicine- Studies in bacteria and bacterial viruses have led to methods to manipulate and recombine DNA in unique and reproducible ways and to amplify these recombined molecules millions of times.
b. Food production-Transgenic plants have been deliberately developed for a variety of reasons: longer shelf life, disease resistance, herbicide resistance, pest resistance, non-biological stress resistances, such as to drought or nitrogen starvation, and nutritional improvement.
Kanamycin is a common antibacterial that interferes with bacterial growth, by inhibiting protein synthesis, and causing the mistranslation of mRNA. Kanamycin is commonly used in chicken feed to keep harmful bacteria from getting into the eggs and producing healthier chickens. Recently reports of severe gastroenteritis have been linked to eating raw or undercooked eggs. This has led to the FDA to ...
c. Agriculture-It is used to produce transgenic plants, which aims to increase production, quality, resistance of the plants to diseases among others.
5. Gene Technology is still a controversial topic and many people in the community are opposed to its use. Outline the social, environmental and ethical issues associated with the research and use of Gene Technology. Remember to think of positives and negatives..
Social: In various times, science and technology have allowed for progression in other fields of study. Recombinant DNA continues to impact society through the new technology associated with it. As with any new technique, good and bad aspects must be taken into account before embarking further. Some good outcomes include the improvement of medicines, improved crops and delivering safer medicines with lower cost. Some aspects that raise concern include viruses developing an antibiotic resistance and environmental concerns.
Environmental- Applications of recombinant DNA technology are discussed as a backdrop for evaluation of the environmental impacts of this technology. Some of applications include using traditional biological techniques for specific purposes, including nitrogen fixation, microbial pesticides, and waste treatment. In these instances the final product lies along a continuum, beginning with an organism marginally performing its function, and ending with one that is highly specialised and very efficient in what it does. One may move along this continuum toward the ‘perfect’ microorganism by using traditional methodologies of mutagenesis and selection, recombinant DNA technology, or a combination of the two