Etruscan Monarchs The Etruscans were a very sophisticated people who controlled the land roughly from the Kume (on the northern tip of the Gulf of Naples) to the River Po. They had great artistic abilities and were skillful traders. Eventually, the Etruscans extended their influence south and conquered the Romans. The first Etruscan king of Rome was L. Tarquin ius Priscus (616-579 BC).
Priscus chose and cleared the site for the great temple of JUPITER OPTIMUS MAXIMUS (which means “Jupiter the best and greatest”), which was to be located on CAPITALIN, on one of the Seven Hills of Rome.
In its later years, the civilization of Rome focused itself on CAPITOLINE. This was the temple dedicated to Jupiter who was the father of the gods and therefore most powerful. Priscus also allegedly built the CLOACA MAXIMA, or great sewer. The 2 nd Etruscan king, Servius Tullius (579-534 BCE), was said to have carried on the program of urban renewal begun by his predecessor. The final Etruscan monarch, Tarquin the Proud, was ejected by means of popular rebellion in 509 BCE.
It started when his son Sext us raped the pure aristocrat Lucrezia, who later committed suicide because of it. With the departure of the last king, the way was paved for a democratic republic. The military power of the Etruscans fell, and those who lived near Rome were absorbed into the new republic. CONSULES OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC After the removal of the last Etruscan monarch, two men from the senate were elected by the members of the CENTURIAL COMMITTEE as consuls; chief judges of the Roman state, elected annually. One colleague can veto (which means prohibit) the other’s decision, thus acting as a safeguard against abuse of power. GRAKCHUS BROTHERS Tiberius Gracchus was elected to the people’s tribune in 133 BC
HIS 101 Builders of a Beautiful Kingdom The Ancient Roman culture had a direct impact on how we view art, literature, architecture, education and religion. Early Roman civilizations were very sophisticated and idealistic. They build great architectural buildings and performed famous playwrights at these ancient places. Romans were considered to most advanced civilization of their time. With ...
He believed he could solve the problems of the poor by redistributing the land. He set up a land commission to distribute ten-hectare plots. He misused his authority when he announced that he would seek re-election as tribune. Such an act was unheard of in this time. This action in sighted a riot within the already angry land owning senators in Rome. 3000 people were killed, amongst them was Tiberius himself.
Regardless, the land commission continued and some 80 000 people were resettled. Gaius Gracchus was elected tribune in 123 BCE. He was an enthusiastic reformer who believed he had the answer to the conflicting interests of the population. He instituted a free monthly supply of grain to help the urban poor. Further more, to avoid offending the senate he proposed new colonies at Capua, Taranto, and Carthage – all cities destroyed during the Punic Wars. Finally, he put forth the idea of a package of moderate to give some rights to non-Roman peoples.
Unfortunately, he was declared a public enemy in 121 BCE, and was killed by a mob along with 3000 of his supporters. THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE At this point in history, the Romans knew that any person backed by either a powerful army or band of ruthless thugs could usurp the constitutional government. Three men following in quick succession – Pompey the Great (Gna eus Pompieus Magnus, 106 – 48 BCE), Crassus (Marcus Licinius Crassus, 115-53 BCE), and Julius Caesar (Gaius Julius Caesar, 100-44 BCE) – rose to power. These men were all seasoned members of the military who cared nothing for the republican constitution by which they had prospered.
They made their own arrangement and split the government of Rome amongst themselves in 60 BCE Forming the first triumvirate, the rule of the three men. JULIUS CAESAR After the invasion of Italy in 49 BCE, the entire peninsula gained full Roman citizenship. He also subjugated the populations of modern day southern Germany, parts of Austria, France, and Switzerland. After the defeat of Crassus at the hands of the Parthian’s, and his victory over Pompey after his betrayal, Caesar appointed himself dictator for ten years. In 45 BCE, his dictatorship was extended for life along with him becoming Pontifex Maximus, or chief priest.
"I came, I saw, I conquered!" These were the words expressed by the incredibly strong will and no-nonsense attitude of one history's most famous men, Julius Caesar, who was courageous and quick-witted and also very good with people. But most of all, he was a gambler who knew how to calculate the odds. Willing to stake everything he had, even his own life, on a chance to win big in the game of ...