A lot of people argue that Martin Luther King, Jr., and his acquaintances had a secret strategy of making use of peaceful demonstrations to intentionally incite attacks from hostility fuelled white officials and white segregationist mobs. “It was well identified by King and his friends, so the dispute goes, that it was the opposing white violence which will attract widespread and concerned media coverage of their actions.” (Loevy, 1990)
Whether King and his associates had such an undeclared strategy, their labors coagulated in to the coverage by the media they wanted. The civil rights pressure group therefore became one of the most exposed events in the history of the United States. It positioned the stage for an act such as the Civil Rights Act in 1964 to be the most or one of the most widely publicized lawmaking battles in the history of the United States.
In the summer of 1963, “subsequent to mainly violent expressions and counter-demonstrations in some states,” (Potenziani, 1981) President Kennedy propelled an extremely sturdy civil rights bill to parliament intended to end every ethnic segregation in spaces of public accommodation be they hotels, motels, restaurants or any other public place for that matter. Owing to the breathtaking power of the southern Democrats, mainly in the Senate, a most imperative civil rights bill had not been passed in assembly since the outcome of the Civil War. A monumental lawmaking face-off was about to start.
... men at ease and keep them open-minded.In the first paragraph King states that he does not usually respond to such correspondence, but ... they believe. In paragraph 23, he begins to criticize the white moderates. People who say they agree with segregation but do ... from Birmingham Jail, one of the great documents of the civil rights movement, contains a harrowing and heartbreaking description of the ...
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was described at the time of its enactment as the most significant piece of legislation to be passed by the U.S. Congress in the twentieth century. This titanic legislative struggle produced the longest continuous debate ever held in the U.S. Senate. The resulting legislation eliminated virtually overnight legal racial segregation, particularly in the American South, where public separation of black Americans from white Americans had long been codified in state laws.
A number of those who participated in congressional enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 clearly understood the great historical significance of what they were doing. Joseph L. Rauh, Jr., one of the chief lobbyists supporting the bill, wrote a long magazine article (never accepted for publication) analyzing the various legislative strategies employed to try to get the bill passed. U.S. Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, “the Democratic floor leader for the bill in the Senate, dictated a personal recollection of his all-important role.” (Riddick, 1969) John G. Stewart, the chief legislative assistant to Senator Humphrey, dictated a long series of notes candidly reporting the daily triumphs and failures as the Senate slowly but surely made up its collective mind on an issue of searing national importance.
John G. Stewart also wrote a Ph.D dissertation on the general subject of Senate leadership and civil rights. The latter portion of Stewart’s dissertation contained an in-depth analysis of the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Stewart completed his dissertation four years after the new civil rights law was enacted. “He thus was able to bring added research and timely reflection to the subject.” (Schlesinger, 1965)
The primary impact of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the almost immediate elimination of racial discrimination in places of public accommodation throughout the United States. Five months after Lyndon Johnson signed the 1963-64 civil rights bill into law; the Supreme Court ruled that the commerce clause of the U.S. Constitution gave the Congress all the legal power it needed to integrate hotels, motels, restaurants, snack bars, swimming pools, and other public places. In the decision, Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States, the high court defined the concept of commerce broadly, applying the new civil rights law to restaurants that received their food and supplies from out of state, even when their customers all came from within the state.
The Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) and Family & Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Introduction Profound knowledge of employment acts and regulations is very important. I consider that effective Strategic Human Resource Management techniques are crucial to the success of any business. Since SHRM is the thread by which HR and strategic goals of the ...
With respect to opening up community spaces to Blacks and other minorities, the Act of 1964 authorized the hotly debated ‘cutoff’ of U.S. administration funds to legislative programs that were involved in discrimination. As the supporters of this stipulation anticipated the requirement and craving for U.S. Government funding stirred state and regional governments all the way through the nation, but predominantly in the South, to mix all their amenities and services. Congress then adopted the cutoff extensively as a way of getting state governments to obey the congressional law, chiefly when Congress passed legislation pledging equivalent right of entry to community facilities for women and the physically Unwell.
“It could be disputed that the most significant stipulation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the one pertaining to equal employment opportunity.” (White, 1965) There was an instant and extremely perceptible enlargement in the amount of women and underground group members who managed to get employment in the nation’s factories and workplaces. The labor force in the United States, predominantly the highly trained and professionalized work force, went from being largely white male to boasting considerably increased scope of women and minorities.
Loevy, Robert D. To End All Segregation: The Politics of the Passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1990.
Potenziani, David Daniel. Look to the Past: Richard B. Russell and the Defense of Southern White Supremacy. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga., 1981.
Riddick, Floyd M. The U.S. Congress: Organization and Procedure. Manassas, Va.: National Capital Publishers, 1969.
Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965.
White, Theodore H. The Making of the President, 1964. New York: Atheneum, 1965.