The effect of stretching on the muscles of athletes
A bit about our musclesâ€¦
Our muscles are made up of very small filaments that are called Myrofribrils. Some of these are thicker than others. A bridging, locking.
mechanism, which prevents these filaments from disengaging when they get to a certain length, permits motion of each muscle within a certain range. When we stretch regularly we can achieve an improvement in the resting length of a muscle. If we don’t stretch regularly, the muscles will shorten resulting in muscle stiffness.
We stretch for many reasons, which are 1. It simply feels good. 2. It makes you feel less tired at the end of the day.
3. Improves flexibility in joints, which can enhance sporting performance. 4. Improves coordination in muscles.5. It can also decrease the muscle-tightening effect that occurs with age.6.Reduces post exercise soreness in muscles.
The stretching method that I will use is called the static stretching method. This method takes the muscle to the end of it’s range and is held for 10-30 seconds. This makes the muscle relax and provides more flexibility and range for the muscle. The stretch should be repeated at least 3 times and each time it should be gently moving into a new range. The longer a stretch is held, the more effective the increase in muscle length. This is the most common stretching method used by school level athletes.
Summary of my project
Do you ever wonder why people always tell us that we should stretch before we exercise? Well my experiment aims to give a reason for stretching before exercise. The experiment that I am going to do will test the long-term (1-24 hours) effects of stretching or not stretching before exercise. If the muscle has shortened that means that it has tightened but if it has lengthened that means it has stretched.
RECIPROCAL INHIBITIONeciprocal inhibition n: a method of behavior therapy based on the inhibition of one response by the occurrence of another response that is mutually incompatible with it; a relaxation response might be conditioned to a stimulus that previously evoked anxiety [syn: reciprocal-inhibition therapy]Reciprocal Inhibition^aEURc The Lengthening Reaction: (previous subsection) ^aEURc ...
My conclusions were that stretching before exercise can keep the muscle stretched, or lengthened, for a longer period of time than if you don’t stretch. So if you stretch you will feel less tight the next day than if you don’t stretch. You may not even feel any pain the next day if you stretch enough. I also discovered that stretching can give immediate results if done properly.
Why I chose this topic?
I chose this topic because I am interested in the branch of science called biology. I chose this particular part of biology because my mother is a physiotherapist and I am interested in what she does.
I expect to find that stretching lengthens the muscle and keeps it that way for a period of time even if you use the muscle immediately after. I also expect to find that if you don’t stretch, the muscle will tighten as a result of using it to exercise.
The aim of this experiment was to measure and record the length of one muscle (calf muscle) before and after exercise (400m sprint).
Also to determine the effect, if any, of stretching the muscle before the exercise.
1. Hinge board
2. 2 Belts
4. Athletes: Male 12 year old, Female 14 year old, Female 16 year old, Female 42 year old.
5. Flat oval
1.) What was done is 4 athlete’s (of different ages but the same family) calf muscles were measured using a hinge board and a protractor the belts were used to keep the leg in contact with both boards. The calf muscle attaches at the back of the knee and below the heel. It is at its maximum length when the knee is straight and the foot is pulled up towards the front of the leg. The results were then recorded for the left and right legs. These athletes were both male and female and at different levels of fitness.
I have the bioligraphy but didn't feel like putting it in if u need it just email me 🙂 American Muscle Cars, the very words speak of automotive power. They represent Americas height of power during the 60s; throughout there aggressive body styling, technical advances, and there massive engines. Even though they were burdened and doomed to die by high insurance premiums and overshadowing ...
2.) Then the athlete was made to run exactly 400 meters as fast as they possibly could. After this run the calf muscles of the athletes were re-measured by the same person who measured that person before. These measurements were taken 1 hour and 24 hours after the run (to see if the muscle shortens with time as a result of using it).
1.) One week later the same athlete’s calf muscles were measured first by the same person who measured that person before and those results were recorded.
2.) Then the athlete was stretched using the static stretching method (see above) .Both the left and right calf muscles were held on stretch for 30 seconds and this was repeated five times.
3.) The athlete was made to run exactly 400 metres then the calf muscle was re-measured one hour and 24 hours later by the same person as last measurement and the results were recorded.
Right leg 24 hours after run
My results show that 1 hour after a 400m run the calf muscle, in 5 out of 8 cases, shortened; and in 2 cases it stayed the same, and 1case it was lengthened. If the calf muscle is stretched before the run however, in 4 out of 8 cases it remained lengthened 1 hour after the 400m run. In 2 cases the muscle did not tighten (or lengthen).
Also in another 2 cases the muscle tightened as a direct result of the run but the muscle didn’t tighten as much as it did without stretching.
There appears to be no difference on the results based on age or sex. Another experiment could look at having more males vs. females in subjects. Also it could have more young, middle and older aged people in the experiment.
The results of measuring 24 hours after the 400m run show that in all cases (8 out of 8) without stretching before the run, the calf muscle tightened. In all cases where the calf muscle was stretched before the run there was minimal tightening.
Some problems that I came across in my experiment were that the same person must measure all the measurements so differences were in angles not in the person measuring. Time for measuring has to be quick since the measuring instrument can cause a stretch if held for too long.
1. Describe the functional anatomy of the spinal cord using the following terms: white matter, gray matter, tracts, roots, and spinal nerves. The spinal cord is a cylinder of nervous tissue that arises from the brainstem at the foramen magnum of the skull. (p. 481) The spinal cord, like the brain consists of two kinds of nervous tissue called gray and white matter. (p. 482) Gray matter is located ...
Another alternate way of doing the experiment would be to stretch one leg and not the other leg. This would reduce the effect of the 24-hour tightening effect. Only one stretching method was used in this experiment. Another experiment could look at using different types of stretching methods. My experiment only looked at the effect of a 400m run other experiments could look at different forms of physical exercise. All my subjects came from the same family and probably from the same gene pool. Another experiment could look at people from different backgrounds to see if that has an effect.
So in conclusion I have found that stretching improves muscle length after a run (1and 24 hours after).
Also that if you don’t stretch the muscle will be very tight 1 and even tighter 24 hours after the run.