The Effects on Population Size and Growth in Australia Abstract The present prospective observational study is aimed to assess the effects of the major factors like births, deaths, and overseas and interstate migration on population size and growth in Australia. The study is based on the data on population change in Australia for the years 1996-1997 and 2005-2006 from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and sheds light on what affects Australian populations size and growth. Although the conclusions cannot be structural or casual, they still combine the frameworks and mirror the conclusions of the studies in Australia, emphasizing the importance of studying population growth. Introduction Recently, there has been renewed interest among the researchers in the major determinants and factors influencing population size and growth. This resurgence has been driven by the theories predicting crucial roles for overseas and interstate migration as well as births and deaths as engines of population size and growth. The present observational study was conducted to examine and assess the effects on population size and growth in Australia. According to Australian Bureau of Statistics, the estimated resident population (ERP) at June 2006 made up 20.7 million people.
This shows the increase of 6.6% or almost 1.3 million people since June 2001. The average annual growth rate comprises about 1.3%. This increase in population size was even larger and faster compared with the corresponding increase in Australian population between 1996 and 2001 that made up 6.0% (or 1.1 million people) at an average growth rate of 1.2% per year. The core component of population size and growth is reproduction (the extent to which one generation is able to replace itself in the next generation) (Hugo G. , 1986).
... The logistic growth equation produces a sigmoidal curve. Population growth slow at first, then accelerates, and finally slows as population size approaches K ... . 2.Let us consider factors that limit population ... POPULATION GROWTH AND REGULATION 1. Populations vary in size over time due to a number of ...
For example in case no change in mortality and no migration occur, the population exposes the tendency to have a zero growth. In case mortality rate is constant, and there is no migration, the fertility rate lower an average of 2 children per woman will evidently result in decline in population.
Migration rate (both interstate and overseas) significantly impacts Australian population. Therefore, these three variables were chosen to assess the effects on population size and growth in Australia. Methods The study used the data from ABS Publications 3105.0.65.001 Australian Historical Population Statistics, 3101.0 Australian Demographic Statistics in order to examine the components of population change. The information set is quite extensive, as it includes population, demographics and immigration statistics. The figures are disaggregated into sectors, such as births, deaths, natural increase, net overseas migration, net interstate migration, population change and estimated resident population; however, they mention no economic factors, as the focus of the given observational study is on the growth and size of Australian population. The statistics data was used to examine the effects of natural increase, deaths and births, as well as immigration (overseas and interstate) on Australian population size and growth. Results The observational study was based on the data on population change in Australia for the years 1996-1997 and 2005-2006.
As it can be seen from Table 1, the number of migrants arriving in Australia between 2005 and 2006 made up 132,000 people arrived from about 200 world countries. The vast majority of them (17.7%) were born in the UK, New Zealand (14.4%), China (8.0%), India (8.6%), and Philippines (3.9%).
It should be also noted that not all Australian immigrants intend to stay in Australia permanently, as many of them arrive at a temporary basis (Nations, 1999).
... geometrical rate while production increases at an arithmetic rate. Thus, the unfettered population growth in ... the Principle of Population. Malthus claimed that there is a tendency for the population growth rate to surpass the production growth rate because population increases at a ...
Table 1 Settlers arrival figures and net permanent migration in Australia for the period 1996-1997 and 2005-2006 Years Settler Arrival Numbers Net Permanent Migration 1996-1997 85 800 55 900 1997-1998 77 300 45 300 1998-1999 84 100 49 000 1999-2000 92 300 51 200 2000-2001 107 400 60 800 2001-2002 88 900 40 700 2002-2003 93 900 43 500 2003-2004 111 600 52 500 2004-2005 123 400 60 800 2005-2006 131 600 63 700 The next important thing to consider is natural increase (comprising of death and birth rates) that also has a significant impact on population size and growth. According to the information from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the ERP (estimated resident population) was 20.7 million citizens (2006) (Australian Demographic Statistics, 2006), while in 2001 the estimated resident population was 1.3 million people less, thus indicating a 6.6% increase in Australian population for the period 2001-2006. As it can be noted, the population in Australia has experienced a steady growth by 1-1.4% per year during the past decade.
Population in Victoria has experienced its highest growth rate (1.4%) since June 1972).
Western Australias population growth rate of 2.0% was also its largest rate since 1990, when it made up 2.2%. South Australias population growth was also the largest since 1991 (1.0%).
Table 2 Population in Australia Key Figures 2001-2006 Population at end June 2001 (000) Population at end June 2006 (000) New South Wales 6532.5 6827.7 Victoria 4829.0 5091.7 Queensland 3627.8 4053.4 South Australia 1502.4 1554.7 Western Australia 1909.8 2050.9 Tasmania 470.3 488.9 Northern Territory 197.6 206.7 Australian Capital Territory 314.2 328.8 Australia 19386.7 20 605.5 As we can see from the Table 3, birth rate in 2000-1 made up 247.5 and in 2005-06 increased to 264.3 (Australian Demographic Statistics, 2001); The increase in death rate was quite significant (from 128.9 in 2000-1 to 133.1 in 2005-06), however, it had almost no impact on population decline, as the Australias population growth rate remained positive. Table 3 Population Change in Australia, 2000-01 2005-06 Period Births (000) Deaths (000) Natural Increase (000) Net overseas migration (000) At the end of the period (000) 2000-01 247.5 128.9 118.6 135.7 19413.2 2001-02 247.4 130.3 117.2 110.6 19641.0 2002-03 247.4 132.2 115.2 116.5 19872.6 2003-04 252.1 133.2 118.9 100.0 20091.5 2004-05 255.8 131.4 124.5 123.8 20339.8 2005-06 264.3 133.1 131.2 134.6 20605.5 Discussion As it was already mentioned, population size and growth in the states and territories of Australia comprise of three major components natural increase, net overseas and interstate migration.
... that Ortiz 2 this problem is exponential because the rats’ population increases gradually forever. I then observed the days in a year ... simultaneously be produced 40 days after the first. ❏ The rat population are not exposed to any negative factors on this island ...
Evidently, overseas immigration, comprising of net long-term and permanent arrivals and departures to the country, have significant impact on the population size and growth in Australia, while natural increase affects the country’s population to a lesser extent. As we can see from the tables and information taken from reliable sources, the rate of natural increase has been slowing down, while the population size continues to grow steadily. This occurs, primarily, due to steady inflow of immigrants, making immigration the unique aspect influencing Australia’s population. Indeed, during the past few decades the contribution of overseas immigration to Australia’s population size and growth has become much stronger than the influence of natural increase (which, in its turn, is somehow impacted and stimulated by the past immigration to Australia).
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