The Kyoto Protocol
In this paper, I will argue that The Kyoto Protocol is an effective way to set obtainable short and long term goals of greenhouse gas emission levels on an international level and should be ratified by The United States of America. Furthermore, I will also recommend the adoption of the European Union proposal in the post-Kyoto conference.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change (UNFCCC) targeted at fighting global warming. The treaty was signed with the goal of achieving the stabilization of non-threatening levels of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the earth’s atmosphere. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This amounts to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.
Benchmarking (or targets) is the setting of emission reduction commitments as a percentage reduction in emissions measured against past emissions. In the Protocol, 1990 was chosen as the year for emission reduction commitments to be measured against. 1990 was the year in which all governments formally recognized climate change as a serious issue. Proposals were made to shift the year forward to 1995, but these were rejected on the grounds that such a change would reward those countries that had done nothing to limit emissions since the Convention process was established.
... to improve. Post 2012, if the target emission level under the Kyoto Protocol is maintained, the impact on economic ... contribute towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving your lifestyle. The Effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol Kyoto Protocol has several provisions ... that are unavoidable after 150 years of industrialization. The provisions of the Kyoto Protocol are legally binding on ...
During the Clinton Administration, The United States signed the Protocol on November 12, 1998. However it was not ratified due to the overwhelming opposition in the United States Senate. In late March 2001, the Bush Administration rejected the Kyoto Protocol, saying that more research was needed before any policies were undertaken. In February, 2002, President Bush announced a U.S. policy for climate change that will rely on voluntary domestic participation to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of the U.S. economy by 18% over the next 10 years.
141 industrialized and developing nations had ratified the Kyoto Protocol before it went into force on February 16, 2005. Since developed nations are mostly responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions, due to 150 years of industrialism, the Protocol places a heavier burden on upon those 37 nations. The countries that have ratified the Protocol are bound by its terms. Although the United States had signed the Protocol it is not bound by its terms because it has not ratified it.
What happens if a country fails to reach its Kyoto emissions target? The Kyoto Protocol contains measures to assess performance and progress. It also contains some penalties. Countries that fail to meet their emissions targets by the end of the first commitment period (2012) must make up the difference plus a penalty of 30 per cent in the second commitment period. Their ability to sell credits under emissions trading will also be suspended.
Every year the European Environment Agency (EEA) produces an annual report assessing greenhouse gas emissions. According the latest 2009 publication, fourteen of the European Union member states (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, Sweden and the United Kingdom, and Croatia) have already achieved average GHG emission levels below their Kyoto target. This is attributed to improvements to cleaner industry, a shift from coal to less polluting fuels, and fuel efficiency improvements in vehicles.
A nour Majid is trying to point out that the Hobbesian state, as representing universal interest rather than class interest, does not apply to Islamic fundamentals and, subsequently, Islamic countries. He seems to be saying that the Hobbesian state is based on equality and human rights, a Westernized idea, and does not apply to Islamic countries. Further, Islamic countries are better off finding ...
Unfortunately, The United States and China, the two largest producers of GHG emissions are showing no sign of improvement. China’s GHG emissions have increased by 120% since the beginning of the decade, while U.S. emissions have increased 16% over the same period. China attributes this to the increase in coal energy to support its citizens that takes up one-fifth of the world population. The United States is relying on volunteer reduction, which has resulted in little to no change.
The Kyoto Protocol is designed to push countries to meet their emission targets primarily through domestic changes. However, the Kyoto Protocol offers an additional means of meeting their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms. The first is emission trading which allows countries that have emission units to spare, to sell their excess capacity to countries that are over their targets. The second is the clean development mechanism which gives developing countries emission credits for building emission reduction projects such as solar panels, wind farms, etc. Finally is the Joint Implementation which developed countries receive emission credits for hosting to a developing country by foreign aid or technology transfer. These three mechanisms allow for more cost effective means for meeting emission targets.
The UNFCCC manages the countries that ratified the protocol by separating them into two groups, developing and developed nations. Many countries have been low emitters to begin with, in which case the net effect on global warming is minimal. On the other hand, some of the largest GHG emitters, including China and the U.S., have increased their emissions. This was acknowledged by the UNFCCC when it adopted a principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities.” By acknowledging this, they place restrictions on their biggest polluters; manage transportation to slow or reduce emissions from automobiles; and made better use of renewable energy sources, such as: solar power, wind power, and biodiesel instead of fossil fuels. Developed nations are more highly managed do to their 150 years of high GHG emissions.
Before reading the articles by the Great Question Contributors, Bob Rae and Barry Cooper, I have encountered one question that somehow has confounded me. “What does it mean to “found” a country? ” Upon lingering on that question, I was enlightened with another question that I have asked myself. “What does it need to have to consider a country founded? ” Finding a country is similar to a game. It ...
The major problem with the Kyoto Protocol is the United States refusal to ratify the protocol. President Bush claimed that the treaty requirements would harm the U.S. economy, leading to economic losses of $400 billion and costing 4.9 million jobs. Bush also objected to the exemption for developing nations. The United States is the one of the greatest emitter of GHG second only to China. The Kyoto Protocol may be doomed if the United States does not invest in this treaty in 2011. As of 2009, the United States produces 16% of the worlds GHG emissions.
The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is an essential step in slowing or reversing global warming. The international collaboration is needed if the world is to have any serious hope of preventing devastating climate changes. With the progress that has already been made and the hopeful ratification by the United States, the Kyoto Protocol will be the greatest achievement the United Nations will accomplish.