The rebirth of art in Italy was connected with the rediscovery of ancient philosophy, literature, and science and the evolution of empirical methods of study in these fields. Increased awareness of classical knowledge created a new resolve to learn by direct observation and study of the natural world. Consequently, secular themes became increasingly important to artists, and with the revived interest in antiquity came a new repertoire of subjects drawn from Greek and Roman history and mythology. The models provided by ancient buildings and works of art also inspired the development of new artistic techniques and the desire to re-create the forms and styles of classical art.
Central to the development of Renaissance art was the emergence of the artist as a creator, sought after and respected for his erudition and imagination. Art, too, became valued–not merely as a vehicle for religious and social didacticism, but even more as a mode of personal, aesthetic expression.
Although the evolution of Italian Renaissance art was a continuous process, it is traditionally divided into three major phases: Early, High, and Late Renaissance. The last phase has been the subject in recent years of complex interpretations that recognize many competing and contrasting trends. But this report is basically focused on the Early and High Renaissance phases. Some scholars date the beginning of the Italian Renaissance from the appearance of Giotto di Bondone in the early 14th century; others regard his prodigious achievements in naturalistic art as an isolated phenomenon. According to the second view, the consistent development of Renaissance style began only with the generation of artists active in Florence at the beginning of the 15th century.
I chose to do my art review on the artist Cai Guo-Qiang, who is a Chinese artist who does most of his art in the form of explosions and large scale projects such as this one, which bring attention to problems in society dealing with violence and terrorism. In his piece titled Inopportune: Stage 1, Guo-Qiang displays 9 identical cars, which are tumbling through the air in different positions, with ...
The principal members of the first generation of Renaissance artists–Donatello in sculpture, Filippo Brunelleschi in architecture, and Masaccio in painting–shared many important characteristics. Central to their thinking was a faith in the theoretical foundations of art and the conviction that development and progress were not only as an inspiring model but also as a record of trial and error that could reveal the successes of former great artists. Intending to retrace the creative process rather than to merely imitate the final achievements of antiquity, Early Renaissance artists sought to create art forms consistent with the appearance of the natural world and with their experience of human personality and behavior. The challenge of accurate representation as it concerned mass sculptural form, or the pictorial considerations of measurable space and the effects of light and color, was addressed in the spirit of intense and methodical inquiry.
Rational inquiry was believed to be the key to success; therefore, efforts were made to discover the correct laws of proportion for architecture and for the representation of the human body and to systematize the rendering of pictorial space. Although these artists were keenly observant of natural phenomena, they also tended to extrapolate general rules from specific appearances. Similarly, they made an effort to go beyond straightforward transcription of nature, to instill the work of art with ideal, intangible qualities, endowing it with a beauty and significance greater and more permanent than that actually found in nature. These characteristics-the rendering of ideal forms rather than literal appearance and the concept of the physical world as the vehicle or imperfect embodiment of monumental spiritual beauty–were to remain fundamental to the nature and development of Italian Renaissance art. The term Early Renaissance characterizes virtually all the art of the 15th century. Florence, the cradle of Renaissance artistic thought, remained one of the undisputed centers of innovation. About 1450 a new generation of artists that included such masters as Pollaiuolo and Sandro Botticelli came to the fore in Florence. Other Italian cities–Milan, Urbino, Ferrara, Venice, Padua, Naples–became powerful rivals in the spreading wave of change. Leon Battista Alberti s work in Rimini and Mantua represented the most progressive architecture of the new humanism; Andrea Mantegna s paintings in Padua displayed a personal formulation of linear perspective, antiquarianism, and realistic technique; and Giovanni Bellini s poetic classicism exemplified the growing strength of the Venetian.
... in the early Renaissance art, portrayed society s belief of religion through the style of realism and perspective in his famous works such as ... became more transparent and more vivid in detail. Lastly, artists in the high Renaissance such as Da Vinci, Michaelangelo, Titian, and Raphael developed ...
By the late 15th century the novelty of the first explosive advances of Renaissance style had given way to a general acceptance of such basic notions as proportion, contraposto (twisted pose), and linear perspective; consequently many artists soughtmeans of personal expression within this relatively well-established repertoire of style and technique. The Early Renaissance was not, as was once maintained, merely an imperfect but necessary preparation for the perfection of High Renaissance art but a period of great intrinsic merit. In retrospect, however, Early Renaissance painting seems to fall short of thoroughly convincing figural representation, and its expression of human emotion is stylized rather than real. Furthermore, the strength of individual features of a work of art
is disproportionate to the whole composition.
The art of the High Renaissance, however, sought a general, unified effect of pictorial representation or architectural composition, increasing the dramatic force and physical presence of a work of art and gathering its energies and forming a controlled equilibrium. Because the essential characteristic of High Renaissance art was its unity–a balance achieved as a matter of intuition, beyond the reach of rational knowledge or technical skill–the High Renaissance style was destined to break up as soon as emphasis was shifted to favor any one element in the composition.
The High Renaissance style endured for only a brief period (c. 1495-1520) and was created by a few artists of genius, among them Leonardo da Vinci, Donato Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Titian. Leonardo da Vinci s unfinished Adoration of the Magi (1481; Uffizi Gallery, Florence) is regarded as a landmark of unified pictorial composition, later realized fully in his fresco The Last Supper (1495-97; Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan).
Medieval art period Medieval art covers a large scope of time. The period covered over 1000 years of art in Europe, Middle East and North Africa. The period was characterized by major art movements based on national art and regional art. There was also the aspect of revivals and artists crafts. Art historians have been successful in classifying medieval art into major periods and styles. This is ...
Leonardo is considered the paragon of Renaissance thinkers, engaged as he was in experiments of al kinds and having brought to his art a spirit of restless inquiry that sought to discover the laws governing diverse natural phenomena. In a different way, Michelangelo has come to typify the artist endowed with inexplicable, solitary genius. His universal talents are exemplified by the tomb of Julius II (c. 1510-15), San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome; the Medici Chapel (1519-34), Florence; the Sistine Chapel ceiling (1508-12) and Last Judgment (1536-41), Rome; and the cupola of Saint Peter s Basilica (begun 1546)–works that represent major and inimitable accomplishments in the separate fields of sculpture, painting, and architecture. Raphael, a man of very different temperament, evoked, in paintings of Madonnas and in frescoes, not overwhelming forces but sublime harmony and lyric, graceful beauty.
The term Renaissance, adopted from the French equivalent of the Italian word rinascita, meaning literally “rebirth,” describes the radical and comprehensive changes that took place in European culture during the 15th and 16th centuries, bringing about the demise of the Middle Ages and embodying for the first time the values of the modern world. The consciousness of cultural rebirth was itself a characteristic of the Renaissance. Italian scholars and critics of this period proclaimed that their age had progressed beyond the barbarism of the past and had found its inspiration, and its closest parallel, in the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome.
The Renaissance lived on in established canons of taste and literature and in a distinctive Renaissance style in art, music, and architecture, the last often revived. It also provided the model of many-sided achievement of the creative genius, the “universal man,” exemplified by Leonardo da Vinci or Leon Battista ALBERTI. Finally, the Renaissance spawned the great creative vernacular literature of the late 16th century.
... Raphael’s death or the Sack of Rome, in 1527, marked the end of the High Renaissance. No matter how it’s figured, ... the money being in Rome, the Big Three Names of the High Renaissance each found themselves in Rome being creative, at certain ... also an important contributor to Renaissance architecture, in works like Church of St Maria, Chigi Chapel, Rome, the Palazzo Pandolfini (facade), ...