Alexander the Great(Alexander III) (356-323 BC)
“My son, ask for thyself another kingdom, for that which I leave is too small for thee.” (King Philip of Macedonia, 339 BC)
From victory to victory, from triumph to triumph Alexander created an empire that marked history and brought him eternal glory. Alexander brought Greek ideas, culture and mentality to the conquered countries and assured expansion and domination of the Hellenistic Culture which together with the Roman Civilization and Christianity presents the fundaments of what is now called Western Civilization.
-Born in Pella, Macedonia, 356 BC, parents were Olympias and Philip II (legends of Alex having gods for parents: Zeus and Olympias)
Olympias supposedly is an ancestor of Achilles, While Philip’s is Hercules
12 yrs old: only child able to tame horse Buecephalus(Ox head), who would later carry him in all his conquests until his death in India(city of Buecephala)
13-16 yrs old taught by Aristotle
340 BC Philip goes on expedition to Byzantium, leaves Alexander, prince regent to rule Macedonia. During this time, Alexander conquered the Maedi, a troublesome Thracian tribe. Made Alexandropolis
337 BC Philip II is assassinated; Alexander takes over, not all approve of him
-Only half Macedonian
-Did not care, and proceeded to kill all allegedly linked to father’s murder
335 BC takes Thebes
334-333 BC Phrygia- cuts Gordian knot, which could only be undone by the man who was to rule Asia.
... many people Philip offended. You would then realise why Alexander and Olympias had such strong motives for wanting the King of Macedonia dead. And ... Macedonia was murdered. The murder of Philip was surrounded by many major events. These events were some of the motives for Alexander and Olympias ...
Battle of Issus- Victory- Crushes Darius II of Persia
Darius flees- left behind entire family, and tent filled with 3000 talents of gold (today in U.S.- 1.2 billion $)
gains most of western Asia Minor
332- reaches Egypt, Egypt welcomes him as their great liberator
331- Battle of Arbela- crushed Darius again, Babylon recognizes Alexander as King of Asia
Alexander enters Susa and Persepolis uncontested
329-328- defeated Scythians(nomads who had murdered Macedonians) at Jaxartes
327-326 Invasion of India – capture of Porus
326-325- Alex wanted to go to the Ganges, but troops exhausted refused
troops wanted to go home but Alex took a indirect path home, plundering erecting harbors and temples, studying Indian culture
Winter 325 Alex had lost almost ¾ of army
324- consolidated his empire by making many of his officers marry high ranking females in Persian and other cultures.
June 10, 323 BC: Alexander dies after a bout with the ten day fever
Founded over 70 cities