Violation of Child Rights Introduction First of all, if we want to talk about violation of child rights we have to define child rights, what they are, and to whom they are intended. ”A child is any human being below the age of eighteen years, unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier. ” , World leaders in 1989 decided that children needed a special convention, because children often need special care and protection that adults do not.
The leaders also wanted to make sure that people under 18 year old have human rights too. UN Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989 and entry into force on September 2nd 1990. The Convention spells out the basic human rights that children everywhere have: the right to survival; to develop to the fullest; to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life.
The four foundation principles of the Convention are non-discrimination; devotion to the best interests of the child; the right to life, survival and development; and respect for the views of the child. Every right spelled out in the Convention is inherent to the human dignity and harmonious development of every child. The Convention protects children’s rights by setting standards in health care; education; and legal, civil and social services.
Debate of human cloning In the past several decades, human cloning has turned from a laboratory dream to worldwide disputes. There are enough opinions supporting both bad and good consequences of human cloning. Human cloning sets a number of difficult questions about human independence, self-esteem, and individuality. Will human cloning be a huge step for man, or will it result in moral demise? ...
By agreeing to undertake the obligations of the Convention, national governments have committed themselves to protecting and ensuring children’s rights and they have agreed to hold themselves accountable for this commitment before the international community. States parties to the Convention are obliged to develop and undertake all actions and policies in the light of the best interests of the child. All children have the right to be protected from violence, exploitation and abuse. Yet, millions of children worldwide from all socio-economic backgrounds, across all ages, religions and cultures suffer violence, exploitation and abuse every day.
Some girls and boys are particularly vulnerable because of gender, race, ethnic origin or socio-economic status. Higher levels of vulnerability are often associated with children with disabilities, who are orphaned, indigenous, from ethnic minorities and other marginalized groups. Other risks for children are associated with living and working on the streets, living in institutions and detention, and living in communities where inequality, unemployment and poverty are highly concentrated. Natural disasters, armed conflict, and displacement may expose children to additional risks.
Vulnerability is also associated with age; younger children are at greater risk of certain types of violence and the risks differ as they get older. Violence, exploitation and abuse are often practiced by someone known to the child, including parents, other family members, caretakers, teachers, employers, law enforcement authorities, state and non-state actors and other children. Only a small proportion of acts of violence, exploitation and abuse are reported and investigated, and few perpetrators are held accountable.
Many children are exposed to various forms of violence; but I will pay attention to a few of them: sexual violence, armed violence, child trafficking, and child marriage. sexual violence against children Sexual violence against children is a gross violation of children’s rights. But it is a global reality across all countries and social groups. It takes the form of sexual abuse, harassment, rape or sexual exploitation in prostitution or pornography. It can happen everywhere, in homes, institutions, schools, workplaces.
... greatest risk.It is estimated that there are 60 million survivors of childhood sexual abuse in America today. It is estimated that hat children with ... type of abuse). When a child has been abused himself at a young age, it is hard to break the cycle of violence. Often ...
Also the internet and mobile phones put children at risk of sexual violence as some adults look to the internet to pursue sexual relationships with children. There is an increase in the number and circulation of images of child abuse. Children themselves also send each other sexualized messages or images on their mobile phones, so called ‘sexting’, which puts them at risk for other abuse. In 2002, WHO estimated that 150 million girls and 73 million boys under 18 years experienced forced sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual violence involving physical contact.
Millions more are exploited in prostitution or pornography each year, most of the times lured or forced into these situations through false promises and limited knowledge about the risks. But the problem is that the true magnitude of sexual violence is hidden because of its sensitive and illegal nature. Most children and families do not report cases of abuse and exploitation because of stigma, fear, and lack of trust in the authorities. Social tolerance and lack of awareness also contribute to under-reporting.
Evidence shows that sexual violence can have serious short- and long-term physical, psychological and social consequences not only for girls or boys, but also for their families and communities. This includes increased risks for illness, unwanted pregnancy, psychological distress, stigma, discrimination and difficulties at school. Armed violence Children are affected by armed violence in different ways. First, and most brutal, they can be killed or injured. In the last decade, an estimated two million children have been killed in armed conflict.
A total of perhaps four to five million more have been disabled as a result of their experience in war, and more than 12 million have been made homeless. However the effects are much broader. For example the death or injury of a caregiver changes a child’s life considerably and may force them to take on responsibilities that interfere with their education. Armed violence results in forced displacement of families and severely affects household livelihood and income; it blocks access to basic services and to education and healthcare.
Moreover, children need to be protected not only from the violence itself but also from being coerced into engaging in it themselves. Child trafficking The International Labor Organization’s in 2002 estimation that1. 2 million children is being victim of trafficking each year. It is a violation of their rights, their well-being and denies them the opportunity to reach their full potential. Protecting trafficked children requires timely victim identification, placing them in safe environment, providing them with social services, health care, psychosocial support, and reintegration with family and community..
More and more families are putting their children into daycare every day. There are different reasons as to why they have to do this. The main reasons are that both parents have to work, or the child is in a single parent situation, and the parent has to work in order to have an income to buy basic needs. In order to pay the child care bill and the cost of enrolment fees, etc, parents will need to ...
Child labor Millions of children work to help their families in ways that are neither harmful nor exploitative. However, UNICEF estimates that around 150 million children aged 5-14 in developing countries, about 16 per cent of all children in this age group, are involved in child labor. ILO estimates that throughout the world, around 215 million children under 18 works. In Sub Saharan African 1 in 4 children aged 5-17 work, compared to 1 in 8 in Asia Pacific and 1 in 10 in Latin America. Although aggregate numbers suggest hat more boys than girls are involved in child labor, it is estimated that roughly 90 per cent of children involved in domestic labor are girls. It is not only a cause, but also a consequence of social inequities reinforced by discrimination. Children from indigenous groups or lower castes are more likely to drop out of school to work. Migrant children are also vulnerable to hidden and illicit labor. child marriage Child marriage is defined as a formal marriage or informal union before age 18. It is a reality for both boys and girls, although girls are more affected.
About a third of women aged 20-24 years old in the developing world were married as children. Child marriage is most common in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.. While statistics from 47 countries show that the median age at first marriage is gradually increasing, this improvement has been limited primarily to girls of families with higher incomes. 48 per cent of women from the age 45-49 were married before the age of 18; the proportion has only dropped to 35 per cent of women 20-24 years old.
Evidence shows that girls who marry early often abandon formal education and become pregnant. Maternal deaths related to pregnancy and childbirth are an important component of mortality for girls aged 15–19 worldwide, accounting for 70,000 deaths each year. If a mother is under the age of 18, her infant’s risk of dying in its first year of life is 60 per cent greater than that of an infant born to a mother older than 19. Even if the child survives, he or she is more likely to suffer from low birth weight, under nutrition and late physical and cognitive development.
Child Labour in the 19 th Century The abuse and misuse of children being exploited in jobs has to be put to an end. Children of this century are no longer treated as the beauties of the world but are viewed as cheaply paid workers. Some employers are paying low wages or no wages at all, while others force children to work excessive hours. If the exploitation is severe enough, permanent physical, ...
Child brides are at risk of violence, abuse and exploitation Finally, child marriage often results in separation from family and friends and lack of freedom to participate in community activities, which can all have major consequences on girls’ mental and physical well-being. Child marriage functions as a social norm. Marrying girls under 18 years old is rooted in gender discrimination, encouraging premature and continuous child bearing and giving preference to boys’ education. Child marriage is also a strategy for economic survival as families marry off their daughters at an early age to reduce their economic burden. Conclusion