Energy comes in two basic forms: potential and kinetic. potential energy – is any type of stored energy; it is not shown through movement. Potential energy can be chemical, nuclear, gravitational, or mechanical. -kinetic energy is the work required to accelerate an object to a given speed. -A function of the position of an object within a field.
* chemical energy is stored in the bonds between atoms. This stored energy is released and absorbed when bonds are broken and new bonds are formed – chemical reactions. * Nuclear energy is the stored potential of the nucleus, or center, of an individual atom. Most atoms are stable on Earth; they retain their identities as particular elements, like hydrogen, helium, iron, and carbon, as identified in the Periodic Table of Elements. * Systems can build up gravitational energy as mass moves away from the center of Earth or other objects that are large enough to generate significant gravity (the sun, other planets and stars).
* Elastic energy can be stored mechanically in a compressed gas or liquid, a coiled spring, or a stretched elastic band.
There two main types of energy these are: 1. Potential energy 2. Kinetic energy Potential energy Potential energy is energy stored due to position. The following are some example in which potential energy can be found. 1. Wound-up spring When a spring of a dock work toy car unwinds, the stored energy in the spring drives the wheels and the car moves. The wound-up spring is said to posse potential ...
Ex. Consider a baseball flying through the air. The ball is said to have “kinetic energy” by virtue of the fact that it’s in motion relative to the ground. You can see that it is has energy because it can do “work” on an object on the ground if it collides with it (either by pushing on it and/or damaging it during the collision).
Kinetic Energy – is the energy of movements: the motion of objects (from people to planets), the vibrations of atoms by sound waves or in thermal energy (heat), the electromagnetic energy of the movements of light waves, and the motion of electrons in electricity. Each form of energy can be transformed into any of the other forms, but energy isn’t destroyed or created. Losses of energy can always be accounted for by small transformations to other types of energy, like sound and heat. Power plants convert potential energy or kinetic energy into electricity, a type of kinetic energy, and electricity in turn can be converted back into other forms of energy, like heat in an oven or light from a lamp. Potential energy is defined as the work done against a given force in changing the position of an object with respect to a reference position, often taken to be infinite separation. In other words, it is the work done on the object to give it that much energy. A function of its movement.
* Motion – A moving object has kinetic energy. A basketball passed between players shows translational energy in the motion that gets the ball from player A to player B. That kinetic energy is proportional to the ball’s mass and the square of its velocity. To throw the same ball twice as fast, a player uses four times the energy. * Heat and thermal energy are directly related to temperature. We can’t see individual atoms vibrating, but we can feel their kinetic energies as temperature, which is a reflection of the energy with which atoms vibrate.
* Sound waves are made through the transmitted vibration of atoms in bulk — though atoms can also vibrate through heat— and sound can, travel by the motion of atoms regardless of whether they are in liquid, solid, or gaseous states. * Electromagnetic energy is the same as radiation or light energy. This type of kinetic energy can take the form of visible light waves, like the light from a candle or a light bulb, or invisible waves, like radio waves, microwaves, x-rays and gamma rays.
Thermochemistry Answer Key Assignments 1- 8 Page 1. Answers to Energy Assignment 1 1. Indicate whether the following scenarios illustrate matter possessing mainly potential energy, or kinetic energy. a) There are 30 liters of fuel in the tank of a stationary automobile. o Potential energy (chemical energy in fact) b) A large rock is perched at the edge of a 40 m cliff. o Potential energy (of the ...
* Electric energy is to the kinetic energy of moving electrons, the negatively-charged particles in atoms. Ex. Consider a book sitting on a table. The book is said to have “potential energy” because if it is nudged off, gravity will accelerate the book, giving the book kinetic energy. Because the Earth’s gravity is necessary to create this kinetic energy, and because this gravity depends on the Earth being present, we say that the “Earth-book system” is what really possesses this potential energy, and that this energy is converted into kinetic energy as the book falls
The transformation of energy
Energy can be changed from one form to another. For example, as waterfalls over a waterfall, its gravitational potential energy is first transformed into kinetic energy, then into thermal energy when it hits the ground. Alternatively, the kinetic energy of the water stream could be transformed into the rotational kinetic energy of a turbine shaft, then into electricity by turning the shaft of a generator, then
into thermal energy by passing the electricity through a resistor, raising its temperature. Finally, heat can be transferred from the resistor to the surrounding air, to warm a house.
The reason we transform energy from one form to another is because different end uses require different forms of energy. For example, sometimes we want electrical energy to power light bulbs that change electricity into electromagnetic radiation, some of which is visible as light. At other times we want the kinetic energy of a rotating shaft to provide mechanical energy to propel an automobile, so we transform chemical energy from fuel into thermal energy in a car engine, and then into the kinetic energy of the rotating crankshaft that provides power to turn the wheels.