Forensic science uses techniques developed in DNA research to identify individuals who have committed crimes. DNA from semen, skin, or blood taken from the crime scene can be compared with the DNA of a suspect, and the results can hold important information that can put a criminal in prison, DNA doesn’t lie. DNA is not just used in forensic science but also in medicine. Through DNA technology, scientists can change microorganisms so that they become medicine. This technology is used to produce insulin, which is a drug used by diabetics, and interferon, which is used by some cancer patients. Using this powerful, weapon you can manipulate organisms to make products that benefit humans. Using Biotechnologies, you can alter food production, waste disposal, mining, and medicine.
DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid. A molecule of DNA consists of two chains, that have chemical compounds called nucleotides. These chains are arranged like a ladder that has been, called a double helix. Each nucleotide consists of three units: a sugar molecule called Deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and one of four different nitrogen-containing compounds called bases. The four bases are adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C).
The nucleotides in one DNA strand have a specific association with the corresponding nucleotides in the other DNA strand. Because of the chemical affinity of the bases, nucleotides containing
adenine are always paired with nucleotides containing thymine, and nucleotides containing cytosine are always paired with nucleotides containing guanine. The complementary bases are joined to each other by weak chemical bonds called hydrogen bonds
The Dangers of Race-Based Medicine An analysis of new drug therapies specifically targeted towards African American populations with hypertension. Introduction to Contemporary Race-Based Therapeutics On November 11 th, 2004, Nitro Med, a Massachusetts based pharmaceutical company published a study on the effects of a new drug called BiDil in treating heart failure among African Americans in the ...
The DNA is located in the exact center of the nucleus. As you see, Guanine is always attracted by Cytosine, also Thymine is attracted by Adenine. Different variations of those four chemical compounds create different organisms of species that called a Repeat Sequence.
For example, the Repeat Sequence, for the human species is TTAGGG. As for yeast its (TG)1-3TG2-3. So different species, have different formulas. If DNA makes one wrong, misplacement of any chemical, the organism can be corrupted, and well die soon. People who have corrupt or mixed DNA have Down syndrome or commonly called Mongolism disease. This disease causes people, to have learning disabilities and physical symptoms that include a small skull, extra folds of skin under the eyes, and a flattened nose bridge. Down syndrome occurs in 1 out of every 800 births worldwide. In the United States each year, about 1,600 babies are born with this disease. Down syndrome results when a person inherits a extra copy of chromosome 21. This defect is known as Trisomy 21.
Both of the egg and sperm hold DNA. Each child receives 23 chromosomes from its mother and 23 from its father, so that’s a total of 46 chromosomes. Every cell carries a blueprint of DNA. A molecule of DNA holds coded plans for thousands of proteins and the length of the strand is called a gene. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Basically DNA is fully composed of proteins.
DNA replication is very important; it’s a very complex process. DNA replicates its self, by unwinding the two chains into one, in order to do that an enzymes called helicases, break hydrogen bonds, so the two chains can go make their own pair, of another chromosome. The second step is when, DNA polymerases, bind to separate chains of DNA. As DNA polymerases move along the separated chains, new chains of DNA are assembled, using nucleotides in the surrounding that are matching the existing DNA chain. Nucleotides are joined to the new chains by covalent bonds between deoxyribose sugars and phosphate groups. Of course, accuracy here is a vital issue, research have concluded that one error in every 10,000 paired nucleotides. But sometimes, the unexpected happens, change in the nucleotide sequence at even one location is called a mutation. When replication, is completed, two new exact copies of the original DNA molecule are produced. Those chains of information never change, though in rare cases it does happen.
What is DNA Nucleic acid is a complex molecule found in all cells. There are two types of nucleic acids, deoxyribononucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). DNA is found mainly in the nucleus of cells. RNA may be found throughout the cell. Even bacterial cells which do not have a nucleus, contain both DNA and RNA. Viruses, however, have only RNA or only DNA. DNA plays a vital role in ...
DNA fingerprinting was first developed as a known technique in 1985. It was first used to see if a person has a genetic disease, but DNA fingerprinting soon came into play into the 21st century. The first criminal case that was based on DNA evidence was in the United States occurred in 1988. In criminal investigations, when DNA was collected from the scene and then compared with the suspect. Both DNA samples matched, that way criminals are put in jail because of this technology. Now present year 2004, the FBI; Federal Bureau of Investigation created a system that contains DNA information about convicted criminals.
The chemical structure of everyone’s DNA is the same. Every persons DNA is different because is the order of the base pairs. There are so many millions of base pairs in each person’s DNA that every person has a different sequence. Using these sequences, every person could be identified solely by the sequence of their base pairs. Thanks to the American biochemist James D. Watson and British biophysicist Francis Crick, who published the first description of the structure of DNA in 1953. Their model proved to be so important for the understanding of protein synthesis, DNA replication, and mutation that they were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine for their work.