There are two aspects that affect this change; the external and internal factors. The external factors are the one that occur outside the school; first factor is the impact of feminism and the decline of patriarchy. Since 1960s, the feminist movement has challenged the traditional stereotype of a women’s role only as mother and housewife, which was subordinate to her breadwinner husband.
This raised women’s expectations and self-esteem, as well as affected girls’ self-image and ambitions with regard to the family and careers – this may explain girls’ improvement in educational achievement and boys’ underachievement, not being the important and all-knowing one, for a change. Second is that there have been important changes made in women’s employment; first introduction of Equal Pay Act in 1970 which made it illegal to pay women less than men for work of equal value, and second the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act which outlaws sex discrimination in employment.
These changes have encouraged girls to see their future in terms of paid work rather than as housewives. Greater career opportunities and better pay for women, and the role models that successful career women offer, provide an incentive for girls to gain qualifications. Also there has been a fall in working class male jobs as a result of globalisation which contributed in the underachievement of boys. And final external factor for girls improvement in school is the change in the family from the patriarchal nuclear family to women headed lone parent families.
To secure life with a good job is probably what all of you look forward to. Choosing a career is only a small step towards that, whatever career you choose at the end of the day it is security and money. Then again, several factors come up as soon as you try to opt for a career. As you are seeking for security, you will be lead into a gamut of factors ranging from personal to financial to ...
These changes has affected girls’ attitudes toward education because in women headed, lone parent family it’s the mother that takes the role of breadwinner for the family, which create new adult role models for girls which is the financially independent women. The internal factors are the one that happen inside the school; first one is the equal opportunities policies; the belief that boys and girls are equally capable and entitled to the same opportunities in education. The 1988 Education Reform Act abolished the sexist curriculum in which girls and boys did different subjects.
It’s found that now that girls and boys are doing the same subjects, girls do better than boys in education because they are more ’brighter’ and hardworking. Second factor is the marketization policies that have created a more competitive climate in which schools see girls more desirable recruits because they achieve better exam results. Also all the brighter pupils want go to ‘better’ schools meaning that schools don’t want boys as they see them as disruptive and an obstacle to the school improving its league table scores.
Also boys could give the school ‘rough, tough’ image which would put off some high achieving girls form applying. Roger Slee says that boys are less attractive to schools because they are more likely to suffer from behavioural difficulties and are ‘four times more likely to be excluded’. Last factor is the positive role model in schools for girls. Since 1988 act there has been an increase in the proportion of female teachers and head teachers. These women in position of authority and seniority may act as a role model for girls showing them that women can achieve positions of importance and giving them non-traditional goals to aim for.