* WORKING PRINCIPLES OF COMPUTER
In reality a computer is an electronic calculating, storage and display device that can only calculate answers or store information using 1’s and 0’s (Ones and Zeroes) and no other numbers! That is the reason behind the RAM-sizes, 1024, 2048 etc… But computer system designers are quite clever at concealing that fact, giving todays computers almost a ‘real, lifelike’ feeling.
* INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES
The devices which are used to input the data and the programs in the computer are known as “Input Devices’. or input device can read data and convert them to a form that a computer can use. Output Device can produce the final product of machine processing into a form usable by humans. It provides man to machine communication. Some of the I/O devices are explained below:
(1) Keyboard : Keyboard is used in the input phase of a computer-based information system. Keyboard is most common input device is used today. The data and instructions are input by typing on the keyboard. The message typed on the keyboard reaches the memory unit of a computer. It’s connected to a computer via a cable. Apart from alphabet and numeral keys, it has other function keys for performing different functions.
... quality printer. A primary storage device stores input and output data but after the computer is turned off, this data is gone. The two types ... this situation, I believe the most widely used input device, which is the keyboard, would work best. Questionnaires are made up of primarily ...
(2) Mouse : It’s a pointing device. The mouse is rolled over the mouse pad, which in turn controls the movement of the cursor in the screen. We can click, double click or drag the mouse. Most of the mouse’s have a ball beneath them, which rotates when the mouse in moved. The ball has 2 wheels of the sides, which in turn mousse with the movement of the ball. The sensor notifies the speed of its movements to the computer, which in turn moves the cursor/pointer on the screen.
(3) Scanner : Scanners are used to enter information directly in to the computers memory. This device works like a Xerox machine. The scanner converts any type of printed or written information including photographs into digital pulses, which can be manipulated by the computer.
(4) Track Ball : Track ball is similar to the upside- down design of the mouse. The user moves the ball directly, while the device itself remains stationary. The user spins the ball in various directions to effect the screen movements.
(5) Light Pen : This is an input device which is used to draw lines or figures on a computer screen. It’s touched to the CRT screen where it can detect raster on the screen as it passes.
(6) Optical Character Rader : It’s a device which detects alpha numeric characters printed or written on a paper. The text which is to be scanned is illuminated by a low frequency light source. The light is absorbed by the dark areas but reflected from the bright areas. The reflected light is received by the photocells.
(7) bar code Reader : This device reads bar codes and coverts them into electric pulses to be processed by a computer. A bar code is nothing but data coded in form of light and dark bars.
(8) Voice Input Systems : This devices converts spoken words to M/C language form. A micro phone is used to convert human speech into electric signals. The signal pattern is then transmitted to a computer when it’s compared to a dictionary of patterns that have been previously placed in a storage unit of computer. When a close match is found, the word is recognized.
(9) Plotter : Plotter is an O/P device that is used to produce graphical O/P on papers. It uses single color or multi color pens to draw pictures as blue print etc.
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(10) Digital Camera : It converts graphics directly into digital form. It looks like an ordinary camera, but no film is used therein, instead a CCD (changed coupled Divide) Electronic chip in used. When light falls, on the chip though the lens, it converts light waves into electrical waves.