Heather GeierQuiz 41. a. Behavioral Excess – behaviors that need to be reduced because they occur to frequently i. Ex screaming, self stimulatory behaviors, spitting, running around. Behavioral Deficits – behaviors that occur too infrequently or not at all. These behaviors are important or useful to the person i.
Ex not paying attention to lessons, not participating in social situations, not finishing class / homework c. Behavioral Inappropriateness – behaviors that are not necessarily problems but they are behaviors that happen at the wrong time and / or place. i. Ex lifting up clothes in class, playing around in the sink, or doing a different assignment 2. a. Determining the specific antecedents that evoke aberrant behavior and the specific consequences that maintain aberrant behavior.
b. The old method was to arrange positive consequences to increase desired behavior and to arrange negative consequences to decrease undesired behavior. This arrangement gave little thought to why these behaviors occurred. The procedures were ineffective and unnecessarily restrictive. Today treatment is based on determining antecedents and consequences that evoke and maintain behavior respectively and this results in less restrictive and more effective interventions.
... as a behavioral contract (University of Phoenix (Ed.), 2002, p. 212). Instructional consequences, the fourth and final, teach students appropriate behavior. These consequences are ... to note details about what was happening right before the behavior occurred, the antecedent, in order to determine the true trigger for ...
3. Most behaviors occur because they are under antecedent control. The antecedent and consequences of the environment are responsible for a large portion of human behavior. Usually there is reinforcement that is strengthening the problem behavior. 4. Intentional or unintentional reinforcement added to the environment by another person following the behavior.
It includes both attention and access to specific items and activities. a. Ex of behavior maintained by this event: i. A student is rowdy independent seat work (behavior).
The teacher walks over and asks what do you need and provides help (consequence equals teacher attention).
Later student get rowdy at the reading center. Teacher walks over and says what do you need. Then she picks a new book for the student. Antecedent equals book is too hard or does not know what to do when done with one. Behavior equals student get rowdy. 5.
Reinforcement that occurs directly because of the students actions. No one else is needed to get the reinforcement. a. Ex self inflicted behaviors such as biting or scratching oneself or self stimulating behaviors such and licking ones hand or sucking of the thumb 6.
After a behavior, an aversive stimulus may be removed entirely, reduced in intensity or its onset delayed. This is either intentional or unintentional reinforcement provided by another. Can be viewed as escape or avoidance. a. Ex student is in math group. She starts humming and is then removed from the math group and put in the thinking chair.
7. Removal, reduction in intensity or delay in the onset of an aversive stimulus that is produced directly because of the students actions. This type of reinforcement is not dependent on others behavior. a.
Ex rubbing your temples when you have a migraine or shaking your hand and / or rubbing it to wake it up after it has fallen asleep 8. a. functional analysis is based on discovering and studying functional relationships. It is the process by which functional relations are determined. Functional analysis demonstrates the functional relation between the hypothesized environmental events and behavior. Analysis demonstrates through experimentation that a relationship does exist between the environment and behavior.
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During an analysis systematic changes are made to the environment in order to obtain predictable changes in behavior. b. Functional assessment is involved with making decisions that will affect the future of some other person. Investigators need to focus on improving the subjects quality of life by determining the function of the problem behavior.
Then the subject will be taught replacement behaviors that serve the same function. Assessment determines the probable environmental factors responsible for a persons problem behaviors. Information needs to be gathered concerning the behavior and its relation to the environment. 9.
a. Determining what legitimate problems behaviors exist. b. Describing each problem operationally c. Determining antecedent variables that systematically control each problem behavior.
Determining consequences that systematically control each problem behavior. Determining replacement behaviors that are functionally equivalent to the undesired behavior. Developing a hypothesis for each problem behavior that describes an antecedent that systematically precedes the behavior, the behavior itself, and a consequence that systematically follows the behavior. 10.
a. Interviews and checklists – least. Descriptive analysis based on direct observation. Functional analysis – most 11. a. sequence analysis i.
a description of behavior and the events the precede and follow the behavior. information collected i. antecedent – what is going on prior to the behavior ii. behavior – what behavior the subject elicited iii. consequence – what occurred after the behavior 12. a.
A functional analysis should be conducted to test whether certain antecedents and consequence variables actually do control the target behavior. b. You would choose the variables that you think are controlling the behavior.