India’s first scientific satellite Aryabhatta was launched into |blt on the 19th April 1975. It was named after the great Indian aronomer and mathematician of the fifth century. The satellite 3 designed by the Indian scientists at the Indian Satellite Centre at ngalore with the assistance of Soviet scientists.A few weeks be-jpv»e it was launched, it underwent checks and tests at a Soviet cosmodrome.
The 360 kg. satellite began orbiting the earth at an altitude of
* about 600 kms. after it was launched by a Soviet Intercosmos rocket
> from a Soviet cosmodrome. It is orbiting at a speed of 96’41
minutes per revolution round the earth. By putting Aryabhatta into
•pace the Indian scientists have won a place for themselves and
for their country in the world of space science.
The Aryabhatta was the heaviest satellite (360 kg) ever launched by any country in the world in its first attempt. Its launching marked a significant event in India’s advance towards space technology and self-reliance. This historic event placed India in the eleventh position among the nations of the world, who have successfully orbited their satellite, namely : the Soviet Union, the United States of America, Britain, Canada, Australia, Japan, Italy, West Germany, France and China. Out of these countries only the Soviet Union, the United States of America, China, Japan and France have been able to develop their own launching vehicles. It is expected that India will develop its rocket launchers in the near future.
Discuss the complex negotiation that Western Science had to undertake in order to establish itself in colonial India The Beginning of Science's cultural authority in India lies in the 'civilising mission,' introduced by the British in the early nineteenth century. The East India Company asserted its territorial control by establishing themselves as a body of traders. They brought about a new rule ...
The 26-faced blue and violet spacecraft, 147 centimetres in diameter and 111 centimetres in height was launched with the following parametres : apogee height 623 km ; perigree 564 km ; inclination 50’4 degrees and orbital period around the earth 96.41 minutes. It was envisaged to conduct three experiments namely : X-ray astronomy for the detection and study of X-ray emission from outer space, study of solar neutron and gamma rays, emanating from the Sun and study of aeronomy including ionosphere, which is useful for radio communication. The data made available from these experiments is expected to bring in new information regarding outer space, the sun and the earth’s atmosphere.
The satellite is established by means of a spin system which consists of six onboard spherical titanium containers filled with compressed nitrogen gas and connected to a pair of nozzles protruding at diametrically opposite ends of the satellite frame. According to the preliminary information obtained at the ground tracking stations in Sriharikota near Madras and Bears Lake in the outskirts of Moscow, the satellite was functioning normally. The ground station received data from Aryabhatta within ten minutes of commands.
Sending of Aryabhatta into orbit has earned a place of prestige for India in the world community ; it has also demonstrated the capabilities of Indian scientists. Nevertheless it has given birth to many controversies. Some people objected to its launching from a Soviet cosmodrome. The basis of their misconceived objection appears to be their ignorance of the fact that it is very difficult to develop launch vehicles. Only five countries of the world, namely the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., China, Japan and France have so far developed their launch vehicles. So it was not wrong to launch the satellite from the Soviet Union—a friendly country which helped us in this field.
Many people argued that the amount spent in space programme would have been better utilised to solve the more pressing problems of the country. But it must be remembered that the long term benefits of space technology would be immense, especially in the field of communications. To quote Professor Rao, once the technology was perfected it would help solve the country’s problems in several fields in a dramatically short time. In fact, if properly developed, space technology can radically change life on the earth.
In recent years the demand for high-speed networking, driven mainly by the rapid expansion of the Internet, has been growing at an exponential rate. While a wide range of wire line and wireless solutions offering broadband connectivity are or will shortly be available, communication satellites are beginning to emerge as an attractive solution in providing broadband connectivity to a variety of ...
So far as the field of communication is concerned, there is a vast scope for development with the help of communication satellites, which eliminate the problems involved in spanning large areas with land lines and microwave radio relay stations for long distance transmissions. The cost of a network of land lines and microwave relay station links for a large and wide spread population would be prohibitive. So the real answer to this challenge is a communication satellite. In India the problems of illiteracy and poverty can be solved through this innovation. It would also help in opening up vast areas of uninhabited land for development and exploitation.
India’s first satellite has practically all the sophisticated equipments imported. But more and more indigenous components are proposed to be designed, manufactured and used in the satellites to be launched in the future. Indian scientists are at work in this fieid.
India’s second satellite for Earth Observation will be launched in the near future. The satellite which is proposed to be placed at an altitude of 525 km, with an inclination of 51 degrees will conduct earth observations for possible application in meteorology, hydrology and forestry, using two TV cameras and a two-frequency microwave radiometer system.
A symphonic satellite which will help India carry out advanced tele-communications experiments, called Satellite Tele-communications Experiment Project (STEP) has started its journey in space towards a spot over the Indian Ocean. This marked a step nearer to he scheduled commencement of a joint project of the Indian Space Research Organisation and the Post and Telegraphs Department. Upto May 1979 a variety of tele-communications experiments aimed at giving technical inputs to the planned domestic satellite communications system will be conducted. These will include experiments to establish telephone connections to remote and inaccessible areas, through satellite, and in the use of advanced digital techniques for telecommunications.
Introduction In describing Cellular Radio, ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) and Satellite Communications we must first have a general understanding of the meaning of these forms of Telecommunications. After a brief explanation of the different forms, they will be described in more detail. Then the present and future roles in Irish Telecommunications will be looked at and some examples ...
India’s second earth station for satellite communications was
commissioned in 1977 at Dehra Dun