Bioreactor and its applications
Bioreactor is an instrument which was made by NASA to study the effect of microgravity (low shear stress) over a cell and its stimulus. And to prove that there is life in space. Bioreactor will produce microgravity and provide artificial life supporting system. The cultivation of cells in horizontally rotating vessels under low shear stress has become extremely popular in recent years, and its non-rotating counterpart, low-gravity cell culture in space flight is also gaining popularity. In microgravity cell is growing due to low shear stress. Bioreactor is aided in cell culture technologies that simulate microgravity and their use in tissue engineering. NASA has developed these technologies to provide a ground-based model of microgravity for cell and biotechnology research. Researchers have subsequently found that the unique properties of microgravity offer many advantages in tissue engineering, especially in promoting 3-dimensional growth and assembly of cells into functional tissues
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, in concert with the biomedical community, has initiated work that offers significant advances in cell culturing technology on Earth that enables further unique research progress which is called BIOREACTOR. More than 100 projects are under progress based on bioreactor and their results are applied in public interest in the fields of health care, tissue engineering, drug testing, transplantation of tissues and organs etc…
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What is a bioreactor?
NASA scientists have developed a rotating culture vessel called a bioreactor that simulates a microgravity environment. They are meeting the challenge with a unique new technology, the rotating wall vessel bioreactor. It spins a fluid medium filled with cells to neutralize most of gravity’s effects and encourage cells to grow in a natural manner. Bioreactor is shown in the (fig1.1).
How cells do grows in bioreactor?
Bioreactor produces microgravity. So how can microgravity help in growth of cells. Microgravity provides an advantageous environment because it gets gravity as a force out of the picture, allowing intercellular forces to be more evident or more effective. If cells are not driven to sediment against a surface and are suspended in fluid, the attractive forces on molecules between those cells have a greater chance to act. Every observation we have in microgravity shows that cells and particles, when suspended either in air or fluid, have a tendency to become associated, with time. In some instances, it does not take a lot of time at all. In fact, within about three or four days, single-cell suspension in microgravity will come together. Three-dimensional growth is achieved because the cells are not driven against the surface—they do not grow across a solid-liquid interface, which is what they do at the bottom of a Petri dish or a culture flask on Earth.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Microgravity : tissue engineering culture done in following 5 steps and is clearly shown in (fig 1.2):
* 3-dimensional growth
* Matrix formation
1G CELL CULTURE AND MICROGRAVITY CELL CULTURE are shown in the (2.1 & 2.2)
Cell polymer bioreactor system, tissue engineering of cartilage ,structure of engineered cartilage, engineered heart tissue, and tissue models that enable biomedical research are described in (figures 3.1,3.2,4.1,4.2,5.1).
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* Bioreactor (fig 1.1)
* Microgravity Tissue Engineering Steps (fig 1.2)
* 1G Cell culture & Micro gravity cell culture (fig 2.1 & 2.2)
* Cell polymer bioreactor system (fig 3.1)
* Tissue engineering of cartilage (fig 3.2)
* Structure of engineered cartilage (fig 4.1)
* Engineered Heart Tissue (fig 4.2)
* Human tissue models that enable biomedical research (fig 5.1)
BIOREACTOR (fig 1.1)
1G Cell culture (fig 2.1)
Microgravity Cell Culture (fig 2.2)
Cell – polymer – bioreactor system (fig3.1)
Tissue engineering of cartilage (Fig 3.2)
Engineered Cartilage Structure (fig.4.1)
Engineered Heart Tissue (Fig 4.2)
Microgravity: Tissue Engineering in 5 Steps
: Tisse Engineering in 5 Steps
Human Tissue models (fig 5.1)