Conventional core analysis Description of Techniques
Western Atlas International
A Litton/Dresser Company
UNION OIL CO. OF CA.
CORE ANALYSIS REPORT
“MCKITTRICK FRONT” 418 WELL
KERN COUNTY, CA
CL FILE 92021
3430 UNICORN ROAD
BAKERSFIELD, CA 93308
FINAL REPORT PRESENTED
JUNE 1, 1992
DATA REDUCTI0N AND ANALYSIS:
William R. Cooper
Jeffry L. Smith
Core Laboratories was selected by Union Oil Company Of California to perform a core analysis study upon samples recovered from the Cymric Field, Kern County, California. Conventional plastic sleeve cores and sidewall core samples were submitted. Presented herein are the results of the analysis performed upon the conventional core samples. Results of the sidewall core analysis were bound and presented separately.
This report is divided into four sections. The first section provides a description of services. The second presents the results of routine conventional analysis in tabular form. The third provides a statistical and graphical presentation of the core analysis data. The final section contains an inventory of the core material recovered.
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In conjunction with the report, the tabular results of analyses are supplied on an IBM PC compatible floppy diskette with data transfer software, CoreLab© .
We appreciate this opportunity to be of service and hope these data prove beneficial in the development of this reservoir.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PLASTIC SLEEVE, SERVICE DESCRIPTION 1
CORE ANALYSIS, TABULAR RESULTS 2
CORE ANALYSIS, STATISTICAL DATA AND 3
CORE INVENTORY LIST 4
Plastic sleeve coring equipment, in conjunction with water base drilling fluids, was used to extract core samples durinq February, 1992. These cores were handled Core Laboratories field personnel
Core Handling and Marking
Prior to coring, the PVC core barrel liners were marked for orientation with parallel scribe lines, a red line on the right and a black line on the left, looking toward the top end of the liner. After each core was cut, the inner core barrel was laid on the cat walk and the PVC sleeve containing the core was extruded from the barrel and cut into three foot sections. Each section was measured and marked for depth at one-foot intervals. Where applicable, depths were assigned such that any core not recovered was attributed to the bottom of the cored interval. The core sections were boxed and then placed in a refrigerated truck maintained at 35¡ F. at the wellsite.
Upon completion of coring the cores were transportod to our Bakersfield facility where it was scanned for spectral gamma activity and placed into chilled storage.
Spectral Gamma Surface Log
Each core was scanned for natural gamma radiation utilizing Corelab’s gamma spectrometer. The cores were passed over the spectrometer’s detector at a rate of one half foot per minute. Total gamma radiation is reported in API units. Potassium, uranium, and thorium are the elements primarily responsible for a typical rock gamma spectrum. Corelab’s gamma spectrometer reports the concentrations of uranium and thorium in parts per million and that of potassium as a percentage.
The chilled core segments were slabbed parallel to the core axis utilizing a one/third – two/thirds cut. Liquid nitrogen was used as the slab blade coolant. The one/third sections of core were mounted in slab boxes with styrofoam inserts. The upper surfaces were scraped to remove cuttings and saw marks. The one/third slabbed sections were then returned to the chiller pending viewing by Unocal’s representatives.
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The two/thirds sections of core were returned to their original core boxes and returned to our on-site chiller pending instructions from Unocal.
One-inch diameter plug samples were drilled from each selected foot of the core. Liquid nitrogen vapor was used as the bit coolant.
Each plug was encased in a thin-walled metal jacket and fitted with 120 mesh end-screens. The jackets were set to the plugs under hydrostatic loading conditions at a pressure equal to Equation 1.
P = 400 (1)
Where: P = Confining Pressure
Extraction and Saturation Determinations (Dean Stark Analysis)
Oil and water were extracted by Dean Stark methods using toluene as the solvent. Samples were removed from the Dean-Stark apparatus after water readings had stabilized. Following Dean Stark extraction, samples were placed into soxhlet extractors where complete hydrocarbon extraction was performed with methylene chloride. The cleaned samples were then dried in a humidity controlled oven at 60¡C and 45% relative humidity until stable weights were attained. Prior to analysis, the samples were cooled to laboratory temperature in sealed zip-lock plastic bags. After grain volume, pore volume and permeability measurements, the samples were placed into a (convection oven and dried at 240¡F until stable weights were attained.
Oil and water saturations were calculated by Dean Stark methods by using Equations 2 and 3.
So = [ ( (Wl – W2 – H2OC)/Do)/Vp] x 100 (2)
Sw = [H2OC/Vp] X 100 (3)
So = Oil Saturation, Percent
Sw = Water Saturation, Percent
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W1 = Natural Weight
W2 = Extracted and Humidity Dried Weight
W3 = Extracted and Convection Oven Dried Weight
H2O = Extracted Water, Density Assumed 1.0 gm/cc
H2Oc = Corrected Water = H20 – (W2 – W3)
Do = Density of Oil
Vp = Humid Pore Volume
Grain Density Determination (Dean Stark Analysis)
Grain volume determinations were performed using an extended range helium porosimeter according to Boyle’s Law. Metal jacket and end-screen weight and volume corrections were applied to the jacketed samples. Grain density was calculated using Equation 4.
Dma = Mg / Vg (4)
Dma = Grain Density
Vg = Grain Volume
Mg = Humid Grain Mass
Porosity (Dean Stark Analysis)
The samples were loaded into a hassler core holder at a confining pressure equal to 250 psig. Direct pore volume measurements were made utilizing Boyle’s Law methods with helium as the gaseous medium. Appropriate screen pore volume tares were applied to each sample. Porosity was calculated using Equation 5.
0 = [Vp / (Vp + Vg)] x 100 (5)
0 = Porosity, Percent
Vg = Grain Volume
Vp = Pore Volume
Permeability to Air
Permeability measurements were made following the pore volume determination by the steady state method with pressure release. Calculations were performed as defined by Darcy’s Equation for compressible fluids, Equation 6.
|Ka= |Pa vg (1000) | |Qa L 2 | |
| |______________________ |x |_______ |(6) |
| |(Pl – P2)[(P1 + P2)/2] | |Vb | |
Ka = Permeability to Air
vg = Gas Viscosity
(P1 – P2) = Differential Pressure
(P1 + P2)/2 = Mean Pressure
Pa = Atmospheric Pressure
Qa = Flow Rate
L = Length
Vb = Bulk Volume
After the cores were slabbed one/third – two/thirds, the one/third sections were cleaned to remove the drilling mud. Composite photographs were then taken under simulated natural and ultra-violet lighting conditions. The results of photography were mounted and presented in book form.
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The plastic sleeve core is stored chilled at a commercial warehouse in Bakersfield, California pending instructions for additional work or permanent storage arrangements.