The consistent overall performance of the Indian economy with the growth engine being the industry rather than the service sector has resulted in Euphoria in the manufacturing fraternity. Even in the machine tool industry, the general trends are marked by increasing globalization, standardization of components and systems, and greater international collaboration. The low costs and leading world class productivity becomes mantra to face the today’s manufacturing environment. The demand for new cutting tools and economy in manufacturing all over the world will rise faster than industrial production as a whole in the near future.
Even though the tool cost share accounts for just 4% of customer’s production cost, the influence of cutting tools on the overall production performance and the quality of end product is much greater. It is estimated that in the coming years Asia is going to be the major cutting tool manufacturer with over 30% market share and India is going to become manufacturing hub for the world. In this scenario, there is no other option for the manufacturing sector other than to concentrate on optimizing machining parameters and developing new tool concepts and methods with use of new materials to cut down on costs.
The manufacturing cost can be minimized by reducing the machining cost through optimization of machining environment (by optimizing the machining conditions) and proper setting of various parameters during machining . Since machining is one of the major cost centres for manufacturing of a product, the production cost can also be reduced by reducing the lead time and speed, feed rate , depth of cut and work piece geometry. These variables govern the economics of machining operations. Therefore an attempt has been made to conduct experimental investigation to find and correlate the technological factors to the economics of the machining process.
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Scope of the work :
Surface roughness is a measure of the technological quality of a product and a factor that gently influences the manufacturing cost. The mechanism behind the formation of surface roughness is very complicated and process dependent. Therefore it is very difficult to calculate its value through analytical formulae, hence the selection of machining parameters becomes crucial for optimum cutting mainly to maintain the quality of product. Even for the economic aspect to increase the production rate, selection of machining parameters place a major role. Although a human process planner selects these parameters based on his past experience or from the data hand books, they can’t be optimal values. The scope of the present work is to propose a procedure to determine the optimal parameters based on continuous optimization techniques.
The main objective of the work is to optimize the machining environment for possible improvement in the economics of the unit production. These optimal values have to be evaluated through experimental investigation. The researcher is to planning to use the Design of experiments technique to minimize the objective function. The Taguchi design approach is also utilized for experimental planning and ANOVA is employed to investigate the influence of the various parameters. In simple words the mathematical model is as follows :
Minimize the total manufacturing cost Z = Cost of turning + Cost of Tool
Cost of Set up + Misc. Cost
Subjected to the constraints: Tool life(T) ….1
Cutting Forces(F) ….2
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With non negative constraints
The complete planned work will be divided into 5 parts in which the first part gives the complete details of the machining environment. The second part will concentrate on through literature survey by highlighting lacunas and untouched areas by the researchers till date. The third part which is the crucial work of the investigator is to plan for experimentations. The fourth part is the real experimentation work along with collection of data and finally the fifth part concludes with the results.
Identification of lacuna literature survey
Experimental set up initiation.
Procurement of materials
Set up experiments
Conduction of experiments
Verification of experiment results and statistical analysis
Plan for execution :
Keeping the importance of manufacturing process in the mind , the research methodology investigation is planned to develop a methodology for optimization of machining environment (conditions) for single point / multi point cutting tool operation A hypothetical model is to be formulated in order to draw the objective function based on constraints for determination of optimum machining operation. In detail the objective function is to minimize the unit product cost and to establish the basis of machining time, set up time, tool reuse time, tool life and tool charging time. The above model is to establish the basis of important parameters such as cutting speed, feed and depth of cut.
The step by step procedure of plan of execution is as follows :
* Study of experimental set up and understanding the machining environment mainly to analyze the cutting parameters and surface roughness.
* Study of finalizing the machine specifications, work piece specifications and cutting tool specifications.
* The investigation will be carried out as for the following sequence.
1 . Identify the importance process parameters.
2 . Find the upper and lower limits of the parameters
3 . Develop the design matrix.
4 . Conduct the experiments as per the design matrix
5 . Record the responses.
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6 . Develop the mathematical model.
7 . Test the adequacy of the mathematical model.
8 . Validate the mathematical model.
9 . Results and discussions.
The lathe is one of the oldest machine tools and came into existence early tree lathe which was then a novel device for rotating and machining a piece of work held between a two adjacent trees. A rope wound round the work with its one end attached to flexible branch of a tree and the other end being pulled by a man caused the job to rotate intermittently. Hand tools were then used. With its further development a strip of wood called “LATH” was used to support the rope and that is how the machine came to be known as “LATHE”. This device continued to develop through centuries and in the year 1797 Henry Maudslay, an English man, designed the first screw cutting lathe which is the fore runner of the present day high speed, heavy duty production lathe, a machine tool which has practically given shape to our present day civilization by building machines and industries.
Function of the lathe
The main function of lathe is to remove metal from a piece of work to give it the required shape and size. This is accomplished by holding the work securely and rigidly on the machine and turning it against cutting tool which will remove the metal from the work in the form of chips. To cut the material properly the tool should be harder than the material of the work piece, should be rigidly held on the machine and should be fed or progressed in a definite way relative to the work.
Types of lathe
Lathes of various designs and constructions have been developed to suit the various conditions of metal machining. But all of them employ the same fundamental principle of operation and perform the same function.
The types generally used are.
1. Speed lathe
a. Wood working
2. Engine lathe
a. Belt drive
b. Individual motor drive
c. Gear head lathe
3. Bench lathe
4. Tool room lathe
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5. Capstan and Turret lathe
6. Special purpose lathes
a. Wheel lathe
b. Gap bed lathe
c. T- lathe
d. Duplicating lathe
7. Automatic lathe
The engine lathe or centre lathe
This lathe is the most important member of the lathe family and is most widely used.
The term “Engine” is associated with the lathe owing to the fact that early lathe wear driven by steam engines. Similar to the speed lathe, the engine lathe has got all the basic parts, bed, head stock and tail stock. But the head stock of an engine lathe is much more robust in construction and it contains additional mechanism for driving the lathe spindle at multiple speeds. Unlike the speed lathe, the engine lathe can feed the cutting tool both in cross and longitudinal direction with reference to the lathe axis with the help of carriage, feed rod and its screw. With these additional features an engine lathe has proved to be a versatile machine adopted for every type of lathe work.
Engine lathes are classified according to the various designs of head stock and methods and transmitting power to the machines. A lathe that receives its power from a over head line shaft is a Belt-Driven Lathe and is equipped with a Speed-Cone and one or more back gears to get a wide range of spindle speeds. A lathe that receives its power from an individual motor integral with the machine is called a Motor-Driven Lathe . A Geared-Head Lathe gets its power from a constant speed motor and all speed changes are obtained by shifting various gears located in the head stock. It has no cone pulley.
PARTS OF LATHE
The lathe consists of following parts :
2. Head stock
3. Tail stock
5. Feed mechanism
6. Screw cut mechanism
The lathe bed forms the base of the machine. The Head stock and the tail stock are located at either end of the bed and the carriage rests over the lathe bed and slides on it. The lathe bed being the main guiding member of the tool, for accurate machining work.
The Head stock
The head stock is secured permanently on the inner rays at the left hand end of the lathe bed, and it provides mechanical means rotating the work at multiple speeds. It comprises essentially a hollow spindle and mechanism for driving and altering the spindle speed. All the parts are housed within the head stock casting.
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The Tail stock
The tail stock is located on the inner rays at the right end of the bed. This has 2 main uses.
1. It supports the other end of work when it is being machined between centres.
2. It holds the tool for performing operations such as drilling, reaming, tapping etc..
The carriage of a lathe has several parts that serve to support, move, and control the cutting tool. It consists of the following parts.
3. Compound slide or compound rest
4. Tool post
The movement of the tool relative to the work is termed as “FEED”. A lathe tool may have 3 types of feed,
1. Longitudinal : It is defined as, when a tool moves parallel to the lathe axis.
2. Cross : It is defined as, when a tool moves at right angle to the lathe axis.
3. Angular : It is defined as, when a tool is swiveled at an angle to the lathe axis
In order to perform different machining operations in a lathe, a work piece may be supported and driven by anyone of the following methods.
Operations which are performed in a lathe either by holding the workpiece between centres or by a chuck are
3. Thread cutting
7. Taper turning
Operations which are performed by holding the work by a chuck are
4. Internal thread cutting
Operations which are performed by using special attachments are
Turning : In a lathe it is to remove excess material from the work piece to produce a cone shape or a cylindrical surface. Various types of turning made in a lathe work for various purposes are described below.
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The work is tuned straight when it is made to rotate about the lathe axis, and the tool is fed parallel to the lathe axis. The straight turning produces a cylindrical surface by removing excess metal from the work piece.
Turning is the process of removal of excess material from the work piece in a minimum time by applying high rate of feed and heavy depth of cut.
The finish turning operation requires high cutting speed, small feed and a very small depth of cut to generate a smooth surface.
This is used to produce a conical surface by gradual reduction in diameter from a cylindrical work piece.
Is the operation beveling of extreme end of work piece. This is done by to remove the Burrs, to protect the work piece from being damaged and to have a better look.
This is of the most important operations performed in a lathe. The principle of thread cutting is to produce a helical groove on a cylindrical or conical surface by feeding the tool longitudinally when job is revolved between centres or by a chuck.
It is defined as the relative surface speed between the tool and the job. It is expressed in Meters per minute (M/s).
It is thus the amount of length that will pass the cutting edge of the tool per unit of time.