Patiala (Punjabi: ਪਟਿਆਲਾ) is a city located in south-eastern Punjab, in northern India. The city is the administrative capital of Patiala district. Patiala is located around a castle named Qila Mubarak (the Fortunate Castle).
It was constructed by a militiaman, Baba Ala Singh in 1763.
Patiala is a Congress-Party stronghold. In popular culture, the city remains famous for its traditional turban (a type of headgear), paranda (a king of tasselled tag for braiding hair), salwar (a type of female trousers), jutti (a type of footwear) and Patiala peg (a measure of liquor).
The first Indian astronaut, Rakesh Sharma, was born in Patiala.
4 Tourist Attractions
4.1 Qila Mubarak Complex
4.2 Sheesh Mahal
4.3 Baradari Gardens
6 Culture and traditions
7 District Administration
8 Notable people
10 External links
Patiala is located at 30.34°N 76.38°E. It has an average elevation of 250 metres (820 feet).
During short existence of PEPSU, Patiala served as it capital city. During the reign of Maharajas, Patiala state extended from Narnaul, Hissar in Harayana to Kandaghat and Chail in Himachal.
Main article: Patiala State
In the 18th century, the political vacuum created by the downfall of the Mughals was successfully filled up by the Sikh Misldars in Punjab by thwarting the designs of both the Marathas and the Afghans. One among these independent principalities of the Sikhs was that established by Baba Ala Singh at Patiala.
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The rulers of the erstwhile states of Patiala, Nabha and Jind trace their ancestry to one Chaudhary Phul. Apparently the appellation of dynasty ‘Phulkian’ is derived from their common founder. One of his sons, Chaudhary Ram Singh was baptised and blessed by Guru Gobind Singh. His son Ala Singh assumed the leadership in 1714 A.D. when Banda Bahadur was engaged in the fierce struggle against the Mughals. A man with vision and courage, Ala Singh carved out an independent principality from a petty Zamindari of 30 villages. Under his successors, it expanded into a big State, touching the Shivaliks in north, Rajasthan in the south and upper courses of the Jamuna and the Sutlej. While confronting the most trying and challenging circumstances in the middle eighteenth century, Baba Ala Singh, unlike many of his contemporaries, displayed tremendous courage and shrewdness in dealing with the Mughals, Afghans and Marathas, and successfully established and maintained a state which he had started building up bit by bit from its nucleus Barnala.
After the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 in which the Marathas were defeated, the writ of the Afghans prevailed throughout Punjab. It is at this stage that the rulers of Patiala began to acquire ensigns of royalty. Ahmad Shah Abdali bestowed upon Ala Singh drum and banner after latter’s death, his grandson Amar Singh, succeeded and received the title of Raja-i-Rajgan. He was also allowed to strike coins.
It was His Highness Maharaja Bhupinder Singh (1900–1938) who gave the Patiala state a prominent place on the political map of India and, in the field of international sports.Most of the buildings with splendid architectural designs were constructed during his reign. It was His Highness who got the Patiala Aerodrome built for his use.
His son Maharaja Yadvindra Singh, a true nationalist was among those Indian princes who, readily came forward to sign the Instrument of Accession, thus facilitating the process of national integration. In recognition of his services, he was appointed the Rajpramukh of the newly established state of PEPSU.
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Though historians have tried to trace the origin of Patiala (as far as the name is concerned) to Rig Vedic literature yet the town as it stands today was founded by Ala Singh with the construction of the Qila Mubarak in the year 1763. One gets the impression as if the city was designed and developed according to a plan akin to that of temple architecture. In the heart of the city was the seat of the king similar to the house of the deity and the residential areas of communities developed almost status-wise. Close to Qila Mubarak were the Mohallas of the Khatris, Aroras, Baniyas along with the big Havelis of the nobility, The first settlers of Patiala were the Hindus of Sirhind, who opened their business establishments outside the Darshani Gate. The lower caste got settled on the peripheral areas of the Patiala city now known as Chur Majris. As in all the medieval towns, there were separate localities of dancing girls. Dharampura Bazar was one such in Patiala, which was frequented by the ruling elite. In the late nineteenth century, the ruling class having been granted huge Jagirs became rich and started constructing huge mansions with sprawling lawns. Some of the buildings though shabbily maintained, stand as mute evidence of that feudal glory. Maharaja Narendra Singh (1845–1862) fortified the city of Patiala by constructing ramparts and ten gates around the city:
Darshani gate – Main entrance of Qila Mubarak
Top Khana Gate
The royal house is now headed by His Highness Maharajadhiraj Captain Amarinder Singh, Mahendra Bahadur of Patiala who also served as the Chief Minister of Punjab from 2002 to 2007. The royals are still considered as cultural and political icons in Patiala.
Maharaja Karam singh who ruled from (1813–1845) of the Sikh Kingdom of Patiala in Punjab also known as a traitor who Joined the British East India Company, and also helped the British during the First Anglo Sikh wars Against another Imperial Sikh Empire of Punjab Which was more large and Extended from Tibet Kashmir, Plains of Punjab to Peshawar Near the Afghan Borders.
Moti Bagh Palace, Patiala now houses the National Institute of Sports
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Since Indian independence in 1947, Patiala has emerged as a major educational center in state of Punjab. The city houses Yadavindra Public School, a prestigious public school set up by His Late Highness Maharajadhiraj Yadavindra Singh, Punjabi University, Thapar University, Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law, Mohindra College, Rajindra Hospital, Government Medical College, Patiala, Government College for Girls and Govt. Bikram College of Commerce, one of the premier Commerce colleges in Northern India.
Netaji Subhash National Institute of Sports, Patiala is a sports hub of North India. Rajiv Gandhi National University Of Law, Patiala was the first national law school of north region established under Punjab Government Act of 2006.
Patiala city has many playgrounds, including Raja Bhalindra Sports Complex, more commonly known as Polo Ground on Lower Mall Road; which houses an indoor stadium. Other sports facilities include Yadavindra Sports Stadium for athletics, Rink Hall for roller skating, and National Institute of Sports, Patiala.
Rajindra Kothi, Patiala located in the Baradari Gardens
Qila Mubarak Complex
The Qila Mubarak complex stands in 10-acre ground in the heart of the city, and contains the main palace or Qila Androon (literally,’inner fort’), the guesthouse or Ran Baas and the Darbar Hall. Outside the Qila are the Darshani Gate, a Shiva temple, and bazaar shops which border the streets that run around the Qila and sell precious ornaments, colorful hand-woven fabrics, ‘jootis’ and bright ‘Parandis’.
It was the principal residence of the Patiala Royals until the construction of Old Moti Bagh Palace.
The entrance is through an imposing gate. The architectural style of this palace is a synthesis of late Mughal and Rajasthani. The complex has 10 courtyards along the north – south axis and each courtyard is unique in size and character, some being broad, others very small and still others mere slits in the fabric of building.Though the Androon is a single interconnected building, it is spoken of as a series of palaces. Each set of rooms makes a cluster around a courtyard, and each carries a name: Toshakhana, Jalau Khana, Chand Mahal, Rang Mahal, Treasury and Prison. Ten of the rooms are painted with frescoes, or decorated intricately with mirror and gilt. In a tiny portion of the complex is a little British construction with Gothic arches, fire places made of marble and built-in toilets perched on the Mughal Rajasthani roof. Burj Baba Ala Singh even today has a fire smoldering ever since the time of Baba Ala Singh, along with a flame brought by him from Jwalaji.Every year its decorated beautifully for the Heritage Festival.
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A part of the Old Moti Bagh Palace built in the 19th century by the Maharajas is the famous Sheesh Mahal literally meaning the Palace of Mirrors.The mahal contains a large number of frescoes, most of which were made under His Highness Maharaja Narinder Singh. A lake in front of the palace adds to the beauty. Lakshman Jhula, a bridge built across the lake is a famous attraction among the tourists. A museum housing the largest collection of Medals from the world collected by His Highness Maharaja Bhupinder Singh is also place here.
The Baradari Gardens is located in the north of old Patiala city, just outside Sheranwala Gate. The garden complex, set up during the reign of Maharaja Rajindera Singh has extensive vegetation of rare trees and shrubs and flower dotted with impressive Colonial buildings and a marble statue of Maharaja Rajindera Singh . It was built as a royal residence with a cricket stadium , a skating rink and a small palace set in its heart named, Rajindera Kothi which is now a heritage hotel .
As of 2011 India census, Patiala had a population of 1,354,686. Males constituted 54% of the population, and females 46%. Patiala had an average literacy rate of 81%, higher than the national average of 64.9%: male literacy was 79%, and female literacy was 73%. In Patiala, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Culture and traditions
Phulkari from Patiala
Patiala’s sway over the Malwa area extended beyond merely political influence. Patiala was equally the set of religious and cultural life. Educationally, Patiala was in the forefront. Patiala was the first town in this part of the country to have Degree College – the Mohindra College – in 1870. Patiala has also seen evolution of a distinct style of architecture. Borrowing from the Rajput style, its beauty and elegance are, however, moulded according to the local traditions.
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Phul Cinema on The Mall facing the Fountain Chowk is built in Art Deco style
With the active patronage of the Maharajas of Patiala, a well established style of Hindustani music called the “Patiala Gharana” came into existence and has held its own up to the present times. This school of music has had a number of famous musicians, many of whom came to Patiala after the disintegration of the Mughal Court at Delhi in the 18th century. At the turn of the century, Ustad Ali Bux was the most renowned exponent of this Gharana. Later his sons, Ustad Akhtar Hussain Khan and Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan achieved world wide fame and brought glory to the Patiala Gharana.
After partition of India, a lot of refugees people migrated from various parts of Pakistan and settled on the muslim properties in Patiala. The then Maharaja of Patiala, His Highness Yadavindra Singh, Rajpramukh of PEPSU along with his wife Her Highness Maharani Mohinder Kaur organised a large number of camps and worked tirelessly for the people.
The Deputy Commissioner, an officer belonging to the Indian Administrative Service, is the overall in-charge of the General Administration in the district. He is assisted by a number of officers belonging to Punjab Civil Service and other Punjab state services.
The brand new Mini Secretariat on Nabha Road, which houses all the major offices including that of the DC and the SSP, was completed in record time, owing to the initiative of the member of parliament of Patiala and local administration.
The Senior Superintendent of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service, is responsible for maintaining Law & Order and related issues in the district. He is assisted by the officers of the Punjab Police Service and other Punjab Police officials.
The Divisional Forest Officer, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, is responsible for the management of the Forests, Environment and Wild-Life in the district. He is assisted by the officers of the Punjab Forest Service and other Punjab Forest officials and Punjab Wild-Life officials.
Sectoral development is looked after by the district head officer of each development department such as PWD, Health, Education, Agriculture, Animal husbandry, etc. These officers are from various Punjab state services.
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Mohindra College, Patiala at night
Shaheed-i-Azam Sardar Udham Singh – socialist revolutionary
Captain Amarinder Singh – 29th Chief Minister of Punjab
Preneet Kaur – MP & Minister of State for External Affairs (Central Govt. under PM Manmohan Singh)
Bharat Inder Singh Chahal – Media & Political Advisor to Capt. Amarinder Singh (Ex. Chief Minister, Punjab & President, Punjab Congress)
Surjit Singh Rakhra – Former member of Legislative assembly & active as Business Tycoon
Abhinav Bindra – the first Indian to win an individual gold medal at the Olympics
Gul Panag – actor
Miss Pooja – Famous Punjabi Female Singer
Raninder Singh – President National Rifle Association of India (NRAI)
Om Puri – actor
Gavie Chahal – actor
Harmanjot singh(Harman Beckham)-National level football player
Wing Commander Rakesh Sharma – the first Indian and 138th person to travel in space
Naresh Goyal – chairman of jet airways
Satwinder Bitti – Famous female Punjabi singer
Babbu Mann – Punjabi singer and actor
Harbhajan Mann – Punjabi singer and actor
Gursewak Mann – Punjabi singer
Roop Bhinder – Contestant Of MTV Roadies
Pammi Bai – Punjabi singer
Bhagwant Mann – comedian
Rana Ranbir – comedian, writer and actor
Navjot Singh Sidhu – cricketer, actor, commentator and politician
Mohinder Amarnath – cricketer
Reetinder Sodhi – cricketer
Lala Amarnath – cricketer
Major Sandhu – television presenter in London