Capital Budgeting Case StudyQRB/501April 8, 2014Capital Budgeting Case StudyThere are at least six capital budgeting tools a firm can use in analyzing a capital expenditure. They are: net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), profitability index (PI), payback period (PB), discounted payback period (DRP), and modified internal rate of return (MIRR).

This case study will focus mainly on NPV and IRR, in addition to the remaining four capital budgeting tools. Net Present Value (NPV)

The NPV of an investment proposal for a project is the same as the” present value of its annual free cash flows less the investment’s initial outlay” (Keown, Martin & Petty, p. 310, 2014).

Before calculating the NPV you must first forecast the projected revenue for the life of the project to obtain the net cash flow figures. This involves accountants and analysts crunching numbers based on many factors such as the economy, supply and demand, competition, and how the company plans on carrying out the project (University of Phoenix, 2013).

NPV looks at the present value of the benefits minus the present value of the costs. You also need a discount rate; it is normally the cost of capital. The cost of capital is used because a firm wants the project to at a minimum make more than what capital is now costing the firm to run its business.

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Capital Punishment Capital punishment is punishment by death for committing a crime. Since the early 1800's, most executions have resulted from convictions for murder. The death penalty has also been imposed for other serious crimes such as armed robbery, kidnapping, rape and treason. People disagree about whether capital punishment is moral or is effective in discouraging crime. Questions that ...

The rule for NPV is if the value is greater than or equal to zero the project is accepted (Keown, Martin & Petty, p. 310, 2014).

After completing a five year projected income statement and a five year projected cash flow from the capital budgeting case study for corporation A and B, this information was used to calculate the NPV for each corporation. Corporation A’s NPV= $2,025 and B’s is NPV= $3,293. Both NPV’s are equal or greater than zero so both projects are a go, but corporation B has a greater NPV, making it a better choice if based on NPV alone (University of Phoenix, 2013).

### Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

The IRR tries to answer the question, what rate of return does these projects earn? For computational purposes, the IRR is defined as “the discount rate that equals the present value of the project’s free cash flow with project’s initial cash outlay” (Keown, Martin & Petty, p. 316, 2014).