Solutions, issues and problem identifications for each individual rooms has been the aim of this report. Besides that, this report also provides procedure and method dealing with the thermal comfort in each room. 1. 1 Introduction Modern man spend most of their days indoor, therefore, thermal comfort is an important aspect of the building design process. Satisfaction with the thermal environment is expressed through the state of mind which defines thermal comfort. Extensive standardization and modelling exists for thermal comfort, which depends both on physiological and physical parameters.
The heat exchange between the environment and the human body, can be described as the characteristic of the environment. There’s no rule for thermal comfort, it involves so many aspect including psychology, physiology, building sciences and many scientific fields which makes this matter even more complex. Page 2 Table of Content 1. Abstract 1. 1 Introduction 2. 0 Basic principles and requirements of Thermal Comfort 2. 1 Environmental Factors 2. 1. 1 air temperature 2. 1. 2 Radiant Temperature 2. 1. 3 Air Velocity 2. 1. 4 Humidity 2. Personal Factor 2. 2. 1 Clothing insulation 2. 2. 2 Metabolic Heat 3. 0 Background of selected building 3. 1 Floor plans and spaces 3. 2 Macroclimate 4. 0 Justification of case study 4. 1 Issues and recommendations 4. 1. 1 Living hall 4. 1. 2 Room 1 4. 1. 3 Stairway 4. 1. 4 Room 3 & 5 4. 1. 5 Room 6 4. 1. 6 Overall Building 5. 0 Conclusion 6. 0 References 21 22 9 7 6 4 5 2 Page 3 2. 0 Basic Principles and requirements of Thermal Comfort Thermal Comfort According to P. O Fanger, thermal comfort of a building is affected by six kinds of parameters.
My family lives in a detached house located in a cosy suburban neighbourhood in Vantaa. The building stands on a modest hill surrounded by mostly detached, but also by semi-detached and terraced houses. The altitude provides us with a magnificent view over a nearby valley and makes our own house look massive and very impressive indeed - almost monumental. We have a spacious garden and a private ...
Besides, these six parameters of thermal comfort can be separated into two different kind of factors and they are the personal and environment factors and they are as below: Environmental factor 1. Humidity 2. Air Velocity 3. Radiant Temperature 4. Air Temperature Personal Factor 1. Metabolic heat 2. Clothing Insulation image showing the six elements of thermal comfort Page 4 2. 1 Environmental factors: 2. 1. 1. Air temperature our body are surrounded by air temperature and they are usually measure in (°F).
Fahrenheit or (°C) Degrees. 2. 1. Radiant temperature Heat that radiates from warm object is called as thermal radiant. When there’s ehat sources around the environment, radiant heat will be present. On how we lose and gain heat through the environment, radiant temperature has a greater influence compared to the air temperature. By wearing reflective clothing, our skin absorbs less heat but without it, our skin absorbs heat as much as a matt black object. Here are a few examples of radiant heat sources and they are molten metals, machinery, hot surfaces, dryers, cookers, walls in kilns, ovens, steam rollers, urnaces, electric fired, fire, sun and more. 2. 1. 3 Air velocity If air velocity is cooler than the environment, the speed of air moving across worker may cool them down. People are most sensitive to air velocity thus its more important factor in thermal comfort. People feel stuffy in a stagnant or stilled air indoor environments. Especiall when they are artificially heated up. 2. 1. 4. Humidity Humidity is provided when water is heated and evaporated into the air resulting humid and wet in air. 70% to 40% of relative humidity wouldn’t cause impact on thermal comfort Page 5 .
2 Personal factors: 2. 2. 1. Clothing insulation By its very nature, clothing can interfere with our ability to lose heat to the surroundings. On wearer, thermal comfort is largely dependent on the insulating effect of clothing. Even when the environment is in perfect condition, not hot or cold, wearing too much of personal protective equipment (PPE) or wearing too much clothing maybe be a major cause for heat stress. Cold injuries such as hypothermia and frost bite may be caused on the wearer if he/she didn’t not wear enough clothing with insulation in cold conditions. . 2. 2. Work rate/metabolic heat For thermal risk assessment, metabolic or work rate is essential. As we carry out physical activities, we produce heat from the inner of our bodies. The more heat we produce when the more physical work we do. The most heat will be lost when the more heat we produce. This is to prevent body from overheating. On thermal comfort, the impact of metabolic rate is critical. Most importantly, It is vital to consider the person’s own physical characteristics when considering these factors. Page 6 3. 0 Background of selected building
Energy Efficient Building Windows Energy efficient windows have multiple layers of glass. The reason for this is because the more layers of glass you have the better it insulates the house. Three or four layers of glass are one of the best because you have more airspace in between layers. A smaller airspace doesn't insulate the building as well as a thicker airspace would.The thickest an airspace ...
The selected building in this report is located at Townhouse 2, 279 Sandgate Road, Shortland, New South Wales 2307. It’s the first house behind townhouse 1, it can’t really be seen from Sandgate road. This house is a double storey building with approximately of 400 square meters of interior spaces. Townhouse 2 , 279, Sandgate Road 3. 1 Floor Plans and spaces The ground floor consists of two bedrooms, a living hall, kitchen, dining area, utility area and a small bathroom, while the first floor consists of just four bedrooms with individual bathrooms. Page 7
Ground Floor Plan First Floor Plan In this case study, both levels are being analyzed in terms of thermal comfort. 3. 2 Macroclimate During summer times, the weather of New South Wales coastal area is slightly humid and temperate and usual is slightly humid and temperate and usual free from extreme cold or hot. The selected case study is located at Shortland Sandgate road, right next to the University of Newcastle. below is the image of major climate for University of Newcastle. image showing climate of UON. www. bom. gov. au/climate/average Page 8 4. Justification of case study In this case study, experiences and justification of human are used to analyse things around the room/ building without any data collection. 4. 1 Issues and recommendations In this case study, both storey will be analysed according to different feels and observation of the author. Issues of the space will be noted out and recommendations will be provided to further improve thermal comfort in the house. 4. 1. 1 Living Hall Plan indicating living hall location in the house. Observation and analysis based on sensory of the analyser: The living hall and kitchen is at the north side of the building.
NOTE: phrases highlighted are being modified to the phrases shown in brackets. (I’ve always found something fascinating about seeing an old dilapidated house along a winding road, they spark my curiosity.) Something about the fascination of dilapidated houses along winding roads sparks my curiosity but most of all give me shivers. (I stare; captivated by the sight) looking at the sight of the ...
But the building is cold all year round. This is probably because the North exposure to sunlight is not enough. The kitchen has blocked half of the north exposure and there are a lot of trees outside the house that blocked the direct sunlight into the house. The house is in dark most of the time of the day. Page 9 Issues and recommendations of the area. Hard floor finishes Floor on the living hall to be ceramic tiles because when these tiles which lay on the concrete slab will increase the thermal mass and has ability to store heat in it. during summer, this can improve the cooling of the house, provided all windows are to be shaded. t works the best for places with good north sunlight access, therefore, this place needs more openings to the north as well. Maximize Window opportunity. By maximizing windows towards the north area, more sunlight can be directed into the house. Of course, with sun shades and blinds on the window as well to prevent overexposure to the sunlight. Relocating the trees outside the house. Trees outside the house can be relocated to behind the kitchen to avoid blocking direct sunlight into the living area. Image indicating relocation of plants outside living and kitchen area Page 10 4. 1. Room 1 Plan indicating location of Room 1 Observation and analysis based on sensory of the analyser: Room one main window is facing to the West and strong afternoon summer sunlight is shone directly into the user’s room, this makes the room hot during summer time. Image of room 1 from exterior Page 11 Issues and recommendations of the area. Image showing how slab can control sunlight entry during different season. A slab is recommended to be installed above room one’s window to cut off summer sunlight. by this way, sun will not be directed into the room and it can stay cool during summer .
The slab length should be considerate to allow winter sunlight to shine into the building and heat up the room. 4. 1. 3 Stairway Plan indicating the location of stairway Page 12 Stairway in the house Observation and analysis based on sensory of the analyser: The stairway/ central of the house is dark and feels congested as there are no ventilations around this area. It feels uncomfortable and it amkes people sneeze walking up the stairs. Issues and recommendations of the area. image showing the exhaust system recommended http://www. 123rf. com/photo_10021797_ventilation-system
We are walking down the solid rock stairs to look for some wine he wants me to taste. I can't see that far because of the dimly lit passage. I follow him into a room were there are many old bodies it scares me all of the old bones piled on one an other. I feeling drunk ask, 'where is the wine?' It must be really good because he keeps talking about it I think. He points to a small opening, and ...
It is recommended to install a ventilation system on the stairway. in the central area of the house, which is the stairways connecting ground floor to the first floor, dedicated exhaust ventilation fan connected to fresh air duct is installed on the area. This exhaust fan is operated manually although it can be connected to cooling system operation, heating operation, humidistat or a timer. The good side about this system is that humidistat or timer can be used to allow ventilations at a specific time of the day, or when the house is too humid inside or when one of the pollutants in house is high.
This dedicated exhaust fan is smaller than typical furnace blower, It provides maximum control for occupants as well. Page 13 4. 1. 4 Room 6. Plan indicating the location of room 6 View of room 6 from exterior Observation and analysis based on sensory of the analyser: Rooms 6 is the coldest among all rooms during winter, It is the additional room added few months ago, and it was supposed to be a upper living hall. The floor is made up of tiles and the inner walls are timber with cladding on outer walls. The North window is small as well. Walls of this room are temporary and it is all low in thermal mass.
Page 14 Besides, room 6 is cold probably because it has low thermal mass on the walls. The external cladding and internal timber wall has very low thermal mass. The wall couldn’t absorb as much heat from the morning sun compared to other part of the house. image showing low thermal mass wall at room 6 Issues and recommendations of the area. Due to its small opening towards the North, this room is quite cool during the summer which is good, but extremely cold during winter. Recommendation for this room can be using carpet as the floor material.
Recommended floor covering: Carpet Heat absorption of thermal mass are affected by surface texture and colour. Concrete slab with soft floor finishes carpet on it usually work better on thermal ,ass as the carpet slows and delay thermal entry into the slab. The roo temperature will rise in about 1-2 degree celcius because of carpet, which is really good in winter but not that good in summer. Room 6 have been complaint by user that it is always cold, therefore carpet is a better choice. Due to absorption of heat by thermal mass from carpet, this effect will decrease the needs of heating energy requirements during winter time.
Mass media is a way of connecting people all over the globe, such as television, radio, internet, newspaper, magazines, etc. Mass media started thousands of years ago. In different cultures, people had different ways of communicating. Many drew pictures on cave walls as a way of telling stories, while others communicated by hitting sticks on walls. In today’s culture, we are able to connect with ...
Image showing comparison between carpet & ceramic tiles Page 15 While carpet lowers winter energy consumption, it increases summer energy requirements, which is good as this room is always cold. WALL selection: Double Brick on concrete slab Image showing high thermal mass walls As for room 6’s wall selection, of all selections, brick wall are selected. A wall in a building account 60-70% of thermal mass. Floor area only account 30-40% of thermal mass. The more thermal the better the building. For highest energy savings and comfort benefits, a double brick wall on concrete slab is selected. Page 16 . 1. 5 Room 3 & 5 Plan indicated the location of Room 3 & 5. Bedroom 3 Observation and analysis based on sensory of the analyser: Upper levels room like room 3 and room 5 always get overheated during the summer. Due to its higher level from the ground and big exposure of windows towards the west and north, this two rooms gets really hot during summer’s afternoon. Issues and recommendations of the area. Upper storey of a building are often built with light weighted construction, with either weatherboard or brick veneers, therefore, they have a potential for being overheat in the summer. Page 17
For overheating to not happen in this house, as much thermal mass as possible should be incorporated on the upper level of this building. With techniques that build masonry or concrete into the structure, continuation of ground floor double brick construction , internal brick walls and concrete slab floor, thermal mass will be provided. To avoid overheating, windows to the east should be minimized as well. the window towards north at the upper levels are to be restricted to lesser than 10% of the upper gross floor area. Good cross ventilation is important too, that’s why positioning of windows are important, not forgetting to shade them well.
The mass media comes in many different forms, including radio, books, television, internet, and newspapers. It fulfils several functions within society, such as education, socialisation and entertainment. It also provides jobs, and is a source of information for worldwide news. Socialisation is the process of learning society’s norms, rules and values. The media is one of the main agents of ...
Page 18 4. 1. 6 Overall House View of overall house in bricks externally & timber internally. Observation and analysis based on sensory of the analyser: As mentioned above and as shown in the picture above. The whole house is made up of brick externally but timber internally. The house especially ground floor and room 4 & 6 at first floor are cold at all times. Timber wall internally seems to be not working. For maximum effectiveness, thermal mass should be insulated from external temperature. For example, the thermal mass should exist within the insulated walls.
If the external envelope is not insulated, the benefits of thermal mass is considerably reduced. Therefore, brick venner walls don’t quite comply with the thermal mass requirements. it gives out little thermal mass benefits as the brick are outside of the insulated cavity. Issues and recommendations of the area. Reverse brick veneer Reverse brick veneer is the reversing of brick veneer solution that places the brickwork on the inside rather than outside. Internal timber framing from the typical brick veneer construction are placed outside instead, a reverse of traditional way of doing it.
By doing this way, typical timber styled buildings can achieve the same thermal mass rating as a double Page 19 bricked home. The high thermal mass of brickwork can be taken in advantage this way by reversing the brick veneer. it insulates the room rather than insulates the outside. Besides, the brick sin in within the insulated envelope. Bets way of doing this is to used it with concrete slab floor. Image showing Reverse brick veneer on concrete slab Compared to traditional brick veneer, the heating needs for this reverse brick veneer is a lot higher although summer savings outweigh this.
Not the entire home should be used with reverse brick veneer, but the most important part of the building that needs this is the North facing side rooms. Any type of light weighted external cladding can be used as the external skin for this construction. Page 20 5. Conclusion Many issues have been realised in the selected case studies and different kind of recommendations have been given to overcome those thermal comfort problems. Hopefully with different kind of recommendations for the selected case study, thermal comfort in the house can be enhanced. Page 21 6.
References Fondriest. (2010).
What is Air Temperature? Retrieved 24th April, 2013, from https://www. fondriest. com/news/airtemperature. htm Sustainable energy info, retrieved 25th April, from http://www. sustainability. vic. gov. au/resources/documents/thermal_mass. pdf Thermal mass in passive solar design, retrieved 24th April, from http://www. mnn. com/yourhome/remodeling-design/stories/thermal-mass-in-passive-solar-design Executive, H. a. S. (2013).
The Six Basic Factors. Retrieved 20April,2013,,from http://www. hse. gov. uk/temperature/thermal/factors. htm Page 22