Name: frank ezebinoka
Course Code: C E C 108
Mat No: M10/ND/ISET/9021
EFFECT OF THE ACTIVITIES OF OIL PRODUCTION ON SOIL
CONDITION WARRI AS CASE STUDY.
Advance in science and technology since the industrial revolution has increasingly enabled humans to exploit natural resources. Soil is one of the most vital natural resources which produce food for millions of people and supplies raw materials for a large number of industries on which the world economy is sustained. The soil is a key component of natural ecosystem because environmental sustainability depends largely on a sustainable soil ecosystem. The soil is a veritable tool in agricultural practices. Agricultural practices that reduce soil degradation and improve agricultural sustainability are needed particularly for tropical and sub tropical soils.
Observed that there is correlation of soil enzyme activity with total organic carbon, carbon and nitrogen biomass. Soil enzymes (amylases, acid and alkaline phosphates, cellulases and arylsulfatases, among others) regulate ecosystem functioning and in particular, play a key role in nutrient cycling. They catalyses certain important reactions necessary for the life processes of microorganisms in soil and the stabilization of soil structure. Soil enzymatic activity which can be determined quite promptly and precisely is a reliable indicator reflecting the current biological state of the soil. crude oil induced changes in the activities of starch degrading enzymes. Invertase activity reduced on addition of crude oil to the soil, due to the unfavorable conditions created by the crude oil and also, cellular destruction by toxic substances, contained in the crude oil and that, crude oil contamination decreased the activity of soil Invertase and glucose level. Also revealed that crude oil in soil inhibited the germination of seeds as well as reduce invertase and amylase activities in Vigna unguiculata and in cassava leaf extract which may have been accompanied by reduction in nutrient mobilization. This change in amylase and Invertase activity has been attributed to pH and temperature. They also observed that, carbon and organic nitrogen sources are preferred for the production of amylase. Also revealed that amylase activity increased with increase in temperature.
In the modern civilization, oil has great significance. However, many people do not consider oil to be of great significance because they only associate it with the diesel or the petrol that they use for transport purposes. According to Yergin (Yergin, p 17), the world is addicted to oil. Due to the oil’s important role in all countries all over the world especially in the industrialized nations, ...
Crude oil contamination has caused critical environmental and health defects and increasing attention has been paid to developing and implementing innovative technology for cleaning up such contamination. Crude oils are composed of mixture of paraffin, alicyclic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH).
Crude oil has been a major contaminant of soil and water in oil producing communities the world over during exploration and transportation and its spillage has caused critical environmental and health hazards. Crude oil spills from pipelines and refineries leads t o oil pollution which causes damage to the environment. Oil pollution is a major environmental concern in many countries and this has led to a concerted effort in studying the feasibility of using oil-degrading bacteria for bioremediation. Bioremediation of crude oil polluted soil is becoming increasingly important as most exploration and distribution of crude oil and its products are usually environmentally non friendly. Measuring the success of bioremediation of oil spills is based on several parameters. This includes the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in the crude oil. The measurement of soil enzyme activities before, during contamination and after bioremediation is used to determine the success of bioremediation.
Whats an oil spill ? Oil spills happen when people make mistakes or are careless and cause an oil tanker to leak oil into the ocean. There are a few more ways an oil spill can occur. Equipment breaking down may cause an oil spill. If the equipment breaks down, the tanker may get stuck on shallow land. When they start to drive the tanker again, they can put a hole in the tanker causing it to leak ...
Experiment carry on soil sample collected from Abraka to determined effect of oil production soil is show that upon contamination of soil with crude oil, the glucose level of the crude oil contaminated soil (COTS) decreased when compared with control soil. Bioremediation with sawdust and poultry manure increased the glucose level on day 14, when compared with crude oil treated soil and normal (control) soil. Thereafter, the glucose level dropped with time (day 28).
It was observed that remediation with sawdust on day 14 had the highest glucose level 0.09±0.222 mmol g-1. This was statistically significant (p