Is project management more of a science or more of an art form The aim of this paper is to answer the question Is project management more of a science or more of an art form?. To answer this question, lets try to understand whether project management is sufficiently controllable according to good design principles that we should expect routine successes, or so inherently unpredictable and political that our expectations should be lowered. First of all, lets define the concept of project management. It is generally accepted that project management is the discipline that teaches us to define and achieve the goals necessary for our project or certain set of activities we have to execute to fulfill our project (Adams 36).
At the same time project management helps us to optimize the resources we use (for example, people, energy, money, time, space, to mention a few).
According to Wikipedias article Project Management, a project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. The total duration of project is the time from its very beginning to its completion.
It can take weeks, months and even dozens of years. Project management consists of several types of activities (Wikipedia, n.p.): Planning the work Assessing risk Estimating resources Organizing the work Acquiring human and material resources Assigning tasks Directing activities Controlling project execution Reporting progress Analyzing the results based on the facts achieved (Wikipedia, n.p.).
Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. A project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. ...
Project Management seems to be a daunting task, isnt it? Is project management sufficiently controllable? Probably, it isnt. Project Management tries to get control over several variables: Time The project manager defines the amount of time he will require to complete the planned project. However, the planned time required to complete each task can depend on other circumstances, and, therefore, cannot be controlled 100%. Cost The cost of project is usually calculated from the time variable. Quality The overall quality of the project is usually determined as the amount of time put into individual tasks (Wikipedia, n.p.).
Although there are tasks that do not require much time for their fulfillment, there are certain cases when, given more time they could be completed exceptionally (Wikipedia, n.p.).
Quality variable can have great impact on time and cost variables, and vice versa. Scope The requirements specified for the end result: The overall definition of what the project is supposed to accomplish, and a specific description of what the end result should be or accomplish (Wikipedia, n.p.) Risk Risk represents the potential points of failure. However, the major part of risks or failures can be resolved if we give to them enough resources or time. These are the main variables deciding whether the project will be successful or not. How do we define success? Should we suppose routine success in case we accept that project management is sufficiently controllable according to good design principles? Or, probably, project management is something unpredictable? I believe, the truth is somewhere in the middle. For example, Michael Greer gives us 14 main principles for Project Management success.
He considers that: Project managers must focus on three dimensions of project success (time, budget and quality); Planning is everything and ongoing; Project managers must feel, and transmit to their team members a sense of urgency; Successful projects use a time-tested, proven project life cycle; All project deliverables and all project activities must be visualized and communicated in vivid detail; Deliverables must evolve gradually, in successive approximations; Projects require clear approvals and sign-off by sponsors; Project success is correlated with thorough analyses of the need for project deliverables; Project managers must fight for time to do things right; Project manager responsibility must be matched by equivalent authority; Project sponsors and stakeholders must be active participants, not passive customers; Projects typically must be sold, and resold; Project managers should acquire the best people they can and then do whatever it takes to keep the garbage out of their way; And, finally, he underlines that top management must actively set priorities (Michael Greer’s Project Management Resources web site) What about success during achieving the goals? Definitely, each person has his own interpretation and understanding of success based on his previous experience, motivation, and goals he wants to achieve.
Running head: Project time management Name: University: Lecturer: Date: Project time management Outline of contents ContentPage Executive summary3 Introduction4 Relevant terminologies4 Activity definition5 Activity sequencing6 Activity duration estimation7 Schedule development8 Schedule control8 References10 Executive summary Project time management involves several distinctive phases, also known ...
Every person can define his own criteria for success in the project activity. Certainly, an individual achieves success when he achieves an ultimate goal in something he plans. I personally define success as the course of development, a process of achievement, a process of constant progress. Success is a huge step towards anything you plan: politics, sports, business, etc. I believe being the successful strategic manager can bring you success everywhere. Being a successful strategic manager is the way the management should be done. You need to work hard, to be highly motivated and to be good I psychology, management, time planning, communication, management.
Paul Worthington speaks about the following skills required to be a good strategic manager: leading, communicating, organizing, negotiating, managing conflict, motivating, supporting, team building, planning, directing, problem solving, coaching, delegating (Worthington 2) What can be called success in strategic management? Actually, every part of project consists of several stages. We need to fulfill certain consecution of actions to achieve the aim. Lets dwell on these stages. The idea is the initial point. It forms the basis of success. Decide what you want.
Project management tool is important for any project management to achieve success. Effective management are with out doubt requires the use of a set of tools that enables plan development and tracking and to be able to foresee or predict the outcome of the project. Among the widely used tool of management is the Cost Business Analysis which is used to determine if a project will be worthwhile. ...
You should distinctly realize your final goal. Goals equal success whereas success equals goal. When I see my final aim in detail, Im sure I will be able to achieve success in it. I feel myself Napoleon Hill who said that millions of people imagine themselves poor and unlucky so realistic that it becomes true. Desire is the second pace on the way to success. We congratulate people and wish them success in their work.
Yet, how can they achieve much success in something if they hate it? We also need to tell the difference between desires. Fleeting and minor fantasy cannot be defines as the desire. It will also result in no action. The real desire is something that forces a person for conscious activity resulting in success. All of us know words If you want to get the maximum you should desire the impossible. Yet, the desire shouldnt be a fantasy; it should be realistic to the smallest detail. In such a way, we approach to the nest pace to success: drawing up a plan of achievement.
When you have a plan of achievement, you will not run off in any direction hoping that success will come itself. Little by little you start to make small paces toward your goal. You have to believe in yourself. Decide what you want and decide that you really want to achieve success. What about the next pace? Edison wrote that success is 10% of inspiration and 90% of perspiration. What does it mean? This is the substantial part of your advancement to success. What about other components of success? Firmness if purpose, self-reliance, self-development, self-independence and responsibility, strategic thinking, the desire of personal and professional growth, sound health, sharpness of mind, creativity Isnt it enough? Your attitude to failures can also be considered a success-compliance test.
All of us can fall on evil days, but different people treat their failures in different ways. If you have a dread of failure you will never be successful. You need to understand that failure is not the end of your life; you need to analyze your failures and not to be afraid of them because there may more often be a combination of factors, such as unrealistic expectations, lack of resources, uncooperative ‘customers’, and weak management of contractors which contribute to the eventual failure of a project (Brown 19) To resume my thought, Ill give you my key factor of success that helps me both in management and in personal life. If you want to achieve much success in something, you dont have to be afraid of failures. You need to double frequency of failures: success will wait for you on that side.
Chapter 3 introduces the Logical Framework Approach (LFA), explaining its role in project design with a simple project example. It explains how sustainability / quality factors can influence a project’s chances for success, and indicates the range of Where to tools that are available to take account of these factors. It also explains how you can find what? use the logframe matrix to develop ...
Adams, John R., and Campbell, Bryan, Upper Darby, PA: Roles and Responsibilities of the Project Manager, Project Management Institute, 1982 Andrew D.
Brown, Matthew R. Jones (1998) Doomed to failure: narratives of inevitability and conspiracy in a failed IS project. Organization Studies, Winter. [available at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4339/is _n1_v19/ai_20873060] Michael Greer (1999) 14 Key Principles for PM Success. Chapter 6: Planning and Managing Human Performance Technology Projects, “Handbook of Human Performance Technology, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass [available at http://www.michaelgreer.com/14key.htm] Paul Worthington (2001) Case Study Developing Project Management Skills in Managing Death March Projects. Working paper, School of Business, Curtin University, Perth, AU [http://wawisr01.uwa.edu.au/2001/Worthington.pdf] Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Project management.
Retrieved May 14, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_management.