The Objective: Through comprehensive research I have read and studied many conflicting viewpoints about the importance and benefits of homework. I hope that with this paper I will explore why homework has been under scrutiny. I also want to show how researchers were vital in determining effective methods for improving student achievement. At the forefront of those studies was Professor Harris Cooper. Due to Coopers studies a new understanding of why homework is important and how homework can and should be assigned came about. His ideas, influenced and motivated by others research, help promote the adoption of homework policies.
This paper also discusses the positive and negative effects homework can have on children and ways to overcome the negative, creating a positive and effective learning tool. Everyone is familiar with homework. By definition, homework is work, such as schoolwork or piecework, that is done at home (American Heritage, 2000).
By the time students arrive at college, they have adopted certain attitudes about homework and certain approaches to doing it. Unfortunately, these attitudes and approaches are likely to be carry-overs from high school or even earlier academic experiences when homework had a different nature and purpose. The 20th century has been a time of great debate over the importance and benefits of homework. On average, homework accounts for approximately 20 percent of American students academic tasks.
... do to encourage them to do their homework. She had confronted many students on their homework issue and received stories of family ... the material better? How important is homework? If these students do not do their homework, is the role of a teacher ... Now, however, I question whether students benefit from homework assignments. Are these unrealistic expectations for students in resource? I do not ...
However, little attention is paid to the topic of homework in teacher education (Cooper, 2003).
Now, more people are starting to research and document the nature and purpose of homework as researchers are finding both positive and negative effects of homework. From the early 1900s to the 1940s most educators agreed on the importance of homework. At that time, homework was usually memorization or drills. In the 1940s educators began to question the positive effects of homework. When the Cold War came about in the 1950s America was ushered into a new kind of war against the Soviet Union. There was a nationwide movement to improve education and student performance. Homework became a tool to cultivate a pupils achievement (Rogets 2004).
In 1960 opponents of homework emerged and condemned homework saying it was deterring the psychological development of students (Cooper, 2001).
Since the 1960s the importance and effects of homework have been under scrutiny. Many school boards and parents became confused about the role of homework and the importance being placed on it. Many districts began researching homework as an effective method for improving student achievement. Professor Harris Cooper, whose articles are sited in this paper, was the first to compile all the research done into one database. Coopers analysis of more than 120 homework studies revealed the following results as usable comparisons of various indicators of achievement: 1. Homework improves achievement.
Coopers comparisons indicated that students who do homework had a higher achievement score than students who do not. 2. The impact of homework varies by grade level and subject matter. The average high school students impact of homework on achievement was twice as much as for those in junior high. Also, the subjects impacted most by studying and homework were science and social studies. The least effected was math.
3. The frequency and length of the assignment effected the impact of homework on achievement. Cooper concluded that shorter, more frequent assignments had more impact than long assignments drawn out over several weeks (Cooper, 2001).
1. What is the philosophy of the school q It is in the appendix (in the first page) 2. Review the student and the teacher handbooks. Comments q It is in the appendix 3. When are professional employees required to be in the school building (When do they arrive, when leave) q They must come to the school at 08 o'clock and they can leave at 17 o'clock. 4. What time does school begin End q On Monday, ...
4. Homework should be necessary and useful. Cooper noted that any activity can remain rewarding only for a limited time (Cooper, 2003).
After his findings Cooper advised that districts begin to adopt homework policies at district, school and classroom levels. A national survey found that roughly 35 percent of districts do have a homework policy in place. One of these districts is the Seattle Public Schools (Washington).
In 1983 the Seattle school district adopted a homework policy and outlined procedures. In its policy the Seattle school district stated that homework is required for all students. Standards and procedures were set within each individual district building following guidelines set down by the district.
The procedures were broken down for each level of education: elementary, junior high and high school. Each set of procedures included an introduction describing the policy, guidelines for homework, and standards. They were hoping that this would lead to uniformity, fairness and also flexibility. The Seattle district also listed the responsibilities for the school and staff, parents and the students themselves (Butler, 1987).
After school districts began implementing policies similar to Seattles the positive effects of homework were seen. Students had a better retention of material, an increased understanding, better critical thinking and better concept formation.
However, there were also negative aspects. Students had an increased loss of interest in academic material and were feeling physical and emotional fatigue. There were also new pressures to complete and perform well (Cooper, 2003).
A new group of studies was being conducted at this time to research the overemphasis of grades. Students were complaining that classroom teachers define achievement mostly in terms of grades. As a team of researchers from the University of Kentucky studied 285 middle school science students they found a link between cheating in science class and motivational variables behind the behavior.
Students who were prone to worry about school, perceive their school as being focused on grades, believe they could obtain a reward or attribute failure in school to outside circumstances were at high risk of cheating (American, 1998).
To What Extent Should High School Students be allowed to Exercise Freedom of Speech While on Campus I think that nowadays to deal with an issue of students free speech rights is a tough problem for High School administrators. The matter is that students free speech is protected by the First Amendment. Thus it means that students are allowed to exercise free speech while on campus. But what should ...
Schools and institutions that stress competition and grades may cause students to view cheating as a way of survival. Studies prior to those conducted by the University of Kentucky found that it is possible to de-emphasis the importance placed on performance and ability. These tests showed that by focusing less on grades and testing lead to decreased levels of cheating among middle school aged children (Anderman, PhD., 1998).
There are several solutions that can meld these philosophies into one academic strategy. Homework, for young, elementary aged children should focus primarily on helping students form good study habits, enforce positive attitudes about school and encourage students to understand that learning takes place both inside and outside of a classroom.
Therefore, assignments for this grade level should not be too demanding and should not stress competition. As the children mature so should their function of homework. By assigning both required and voluntary assignments students would feel less pressure to perform. Often and this grade level homework is used as a punishment. This communicates a negative attitude about homework. Teachers should be trying to make learning somewhat challenging and interesting.
By using it a discipline technique students view homework as being boring and arbitrary (Cooper, 2003).
In high school, teachers can view homework and studying as an extension of their efforts in the classroom. At this age level homework should be showing students how to integrate their skills and encourage different outlooks for problem solving (Viadero, 2003).
In conclusion, a childs grade level has a severe impact on the type and amount of homework that should be given. Homework should also be seen as one of several methods that should be used for learning. Students should always be encouraged to realize that learning happens in all aspects of your daily life.
In high school, however, homework must be taken more seriously. These studies have shown that the completion of homework can have a significant effect on a students overall achievement. It is certain that some students see homework as a punishment or tradition It is important that they see that homework serves educational purposes. By adopting homework policies school boards acknowledge that homework is an effective tool used to increase student achievement, instill discipline and hone learning skills. It is also necessary to conclude that as eager and supportive a teacher, a school or a district may be on helping a child to succeed, children are only at school for an average of six hours per day. Therefore parents and the public must also be aware that they too share in the responsibility of educating children.
More and more children and students these days seem to be more preoccupied with their schoolwork than ever. With new curriculums and testing in progress we have to stop and think how much stress students are in these days. Not many people stop to think about the younger generation. The amount of homework assigned to students should be reduced. First, the amount of homework should be reduced ...
Homework, along with activities, clubs, sports and supportive individuals all come together to mold a total educational program. Works Cited 1. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2. The American Psychological Association.
1998. Research Shows Homework Does Boost Academic Achievement; but Overemphasizing Grades and Performance May Lead to Cheating. 3. Anderman, E., Ph.D., Griesinger, T., M.S., Westerfield,G, M.S. Motivation and Cheating During Early Adolescence. 1998. University of Kentucky, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.
90, No. 1. 4. Butler, Jocelyn. 1987. Homework. Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI), U.S. Department of Education.
5. Cooper, Harris. 2001. The Battle Over Homework: A Common Ground for Administrator.s, Teachers and Parents. Corwin Press. 6. Cooper, Harris.
2003. Homework Research and Policy: A Review of the Literature. University of Missouri-Columbia. 8. Viadero, Debra (2003, October).
Homework Not on Rise, Studies Find.
[30 paragraphs.] Education Week [Online Serial]. Available: http://www.edweek.com/ew/ew-printstory.efm?slug=06 Homework.h23.