They provide supporting information about planning and teaching the subjects and form important documentary evidence about course delivery. However, SoW are also extremely flexible teaching guides that can be moulded to take account of local teaching needs and resources. There is no set method for developing schemes. Colleges that responded to requests for information whilst researching this article approached SoW in their own way. All were agreed on the importance of accurate schemes to guide subject delivery.
One respondent compared SoW to a ? road map of a journey?. Many colleges incorporate the need to develop and make widely available SoW into their strategic planning processes. SoW can be used to plan for any subject and at any level. Why use Schemes of Work? SoW allow teaching staff to organise their work so that course delivery remains on target and in accordance with the syllabus content. It is quite easy to see SoW as an unnecessary administrative burden, in addition to all the other paperwork that staff have to complete. However, this view, which underestimates the importance of SoW, is mistaken for two reasons.
First, in the long run, lecturers who adhere to SoW are more likely to achieve the aims and objectives of the syllabus being taught. As planning tools, SoW can also be seen as time management tools. The time spent on developing a scheme at the start of a course is small compared to the time saved for delivering the course in accordance with it. Unplanned course delivery adds to workloads. Second, many colleges are now geographically dispersed around many locations. It is therefore important, to maintain consistent standards, that staff who teach a particular syllabus follow the same plan.
Teaching practice is the practical aspect of teacher training and it is an assortment of factual and dramatic characteristics. During the teaching practice student teachers find an opportunity to use the acquired knowledge, especially in the areas of psychology, teaching methods, teaching principles and teaching techniques. During teaching practice student teachers are like apprentices to acquire ...
This is also important if the teacher changes during the course. Any disruption caused by this can be minimised where SoW are available to guide course delivery. As planning tools, SoW can also be seen as way markers for course delivery by determining the prerequisites for moving on. For example, the scheme may specify the material that should be covered before a practical test. It may determine what is needed before a project can begin. Because SoW are important planning tools for guiding course delivery, they should be easily accessible.
Many colleges now make them available on the Intranet or VLE, so that they can be accessed by staff and students. Indeed, in some cases the Intranet is designed around the SoW, thus placing all the resources in context. Some colleges only make the templates available on the network, but it is good practice to make the completed schemes available as well. A further development would be to provide links from items in the scheme to resources and assessments. Any changes to course delivery should be incorporated within the schemes and learners should be informed of the changes.
The best way to do this is to regularly refer learners to the scheme, so that they can see a link between them and the way the course is progressing. What information should SoW provide? For SoW to be useful, it is important that they contain some key information that has formative value. It is important, first, to define the learning objective. This is about describing, in a logical order, the steps necessary to build up the knowledge and understanding of a subject or topic. After this come the teaching activities, which help the acquisition of knowledge and understanding.
A flexible approach should be taken to defining teaching activities- the same topic can be approached in different ways in different colleges. For example, a college may be located in an area rich in local resources useful for a particular subject, such as history or geography. Another college may need to cover the same topics using other resources, such as ICT based learning material. SoW do not restrict the variety of learning styles and teaching resources. Similarly, in continuing the formative role of SoW, they can be used to integrate issues such as equality, citizenship, ethical considerations and key skills into course delivery.
The Term Paper on Developing Yourself As An Effective Human Resources Or Learning And Development Practitioner
Title of report: Developing Yourself as an Effective Human Resources or Learning and Development Practitioner Table of Contents S Subject: Developing yourself as an Effective Human Resources or Learning & Development Practitioner Introduction 1.1 The Human Resources Profession Map (HRPM) – Knowledge, Skills and Behaviours 2.1 HR Customers – Meeting Their Needs 2.2 Methods of Communication – ...
Points arising from these issues are relevant to most subject areas. For example, in world history, it is important to be able to empathise with alternative views and not just Eurocentric ones. Ethical issues are relevant to science, particularly when considering what the limits of research should be. SoW can be used to ensure that all these issues are part of course delivery. The widespread use of ICT for teaching and learning should help to enhance key skills in IT.
SoW should also define learner outcomes. This refers to the knowledge and understanding the learner hould have acquired at the end of a session. It is necessary to do this so as to make sure that learning objectives have been achieved, that the teaching methods are effective and to determine whether the learner is ready to move on. Some teaching resources, such as video players and interactive whiteboards, are in limited supply. SoW can be used as team planning tools to share the use of resources. In order to maximise the efficient use of limited resources, it is good practice for SoW not to be too restrictive about dates, because then the slightest change can make the whole scheme redundant.
How should SoW be constructed? A meaningful scheme should, therefore, say something about the learning objective, learning activities and learner outcome. How should this information be presented? In simple terms, SoW are forms. What fields should the forms contain to ensure that the three broad purposes of SoW are adequately captured? There is no set design for SoW; they are flexible planning tools. Research for this article has found many approaches, some requiring more information than others. Some leave a great deal to the discretion of the tutor.
The screen shot below shows a standard scheme of work developed by Tamworth & Lichfield College. Essential information is captured at the top, but teaching staff are free to complete the body of the scheme to suit the needs of their course. The information required by this scheme is broadly similar to other SoW viewed whilst researching this article. Some have a separate entry for each area of basic skills: literacy, numeracy and IT. Another scheme viewed for this article was silent on “Assessment” but gave prominence to learner outcome in general.
I will be maintaining effective communication with my tutor by writing my reports and other assignments, by giving evidence through my self-assessment activities, reflective writing, the web searches I have conducted and web links I use, and my independent research. I will use language which is clear and concise and identifies that I have answered the questions and addressed the learning outcomes. ...
Whatever the level of detail required by the SoW, the best approach is to develop a standard template with sufficient flexibility to meet department specific needs, such as lab work in science. A standardised scheme should in no way be seen as hindering creativity. SoW are simply planning documents to ensure course delivery remains on time and relevant. Creativity is about actual course delivery. SoW do not dictate how a course should be delivered; that is for the teaching staff to decide. So, in the scheme illustrated above, there are ? Methods of Delivery? and ? Resources? fields.
Here it is for the lecturer to decide how the course should be taught and what types of resources should be used. Standardisation will also avoid the confusion that would be caused if every lecturer was able to design their own scheme. Learners would be able to recognise a standard scheme instantly, regardless of the subject it related to. Conclusion SoW are used widely in colleges as planning tools. The exact design of the schemes can vary, but most seem to capture key information about the course and how it will be delivered. Whatever the design, it is better to adopt a standardised, but flexible, template.
They should not be seen as rigid modes of delivery that restrict creativity. It is also good practice to make the completed SoW for each course available on the Intranet, VLE or college network, so that learners can access them. Preparing a Scheme of Work for ICT in Primary Schools You have been asked to prepare a scheme of work for ICT. It can be difficult to know where to start, what to include and how to make it useful to other teachers. This section goes through: What a scheme of work is The QCA scheme of work Approaches to writing a scheme of work Pupil activities Implementing your scheme of work.
Primary Education & Post Plowden Legacy Subject: Primary Education & Post Plowden Legacy Tutor: Alastair HorburyAssignment: Critique of given text - Chapter 6, 'Pupils at Work.' Due: Mon 14 Nov 94 INTRODUCTION The task assigned was to read all six chapters provided, select one and produce a critique on the subject matter. The chapter selected was number six which analysed pupils' and ' ...
What is a Scheme of Work? A written scheme of work has become necessary since schools now have to be more accountable for what they teach. OFSTED will look at the scheme of work to see if your school has planned to cover the Programmes of Study for ICT and if the work is planned at levels appropriate to pupils’ ages. In a similar way parents and governors can look at the way the work is planned and be reassured that money invested in ICT is being well used to improve learning. OFSTED will also check to see if you are using the QCA/DfEE scheme of work; and/or how you have adapted it to fit your school circumstances.
Generally, a scheme of work will include all the elements of the programme of study for ICT but divided into sections so that each class teacher knows what needs to be covered during that year. In addition, a scheme will include ideas for activities and may include sample lesson plans. These can be planned together with other subject coordinators to ensure that ICT is taught, developed and practiced in a number of different contexts. For example: Using the same ICT skills, pupils can collect information by using questionnaires and present it in the form of pie and/or bar charts.
Geography – Unit 8 Improving the Environment. Pupils use a questionnaire to collect data on the types of rubbish collected over a week and present the information Science – Unit 4a Moving and Growing. Pupils measure parts of the body; make predictions related to size and use bar charts or pictograms to present their findings. Maths – Numeracy strategy P114 – Organising and interpreting data. Pupils use bar charts to present information on bus times. Once the scheme is completed, it will provide the basis for planning ICT in your school.
The programmes of study when divided up, will state what has to be included in long term plans over one or two years. Activities show what will be covered from term to term. Lesson plans will show the learning and resources in the short term, from day to day. When you have prepared your scheme, it may be that some parts of the programme of study will not be taught at the present time. Your scheme can then be used to show what training needs to be planned or what equipment purchased. In this way your scheme becomes a statement of how your school intends to develop ICT over the next one to three years.
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If it is to be used in this way it is important that your plans for ICT match with the school development plan, particularly if funding is needed. The QCA Scheme of Work The QCA scheme was initially written for teachers to use with their one or two computers in the classroom. Since the introduction of NGfL and the increase of computer suites, it can equally be adapted to this environment. The scheme was written as defined units consisting of short tasks to systematically develop the skills and knowledge required to build ICT capability.
These are followed by a short integrated task which uses this expertise. The units taken as a whole comprise the scheme. Since the introduction of the scheme a further 5 units have been written. The scheme now delivers the programme of study if used in its entirety. Nevertheless there are some areas where progression of experience is still poor. For example the unit on e-mail only occurs in year 3. The table below shows the spread of the units over experiences based on skills and knowledge. Areas of Experience covered by QCA units : – Year 1Year 2Year 3Year 4Year 5Year 6
Graphics- 2B- 4B5A- Text/DTP/multimedia1B2A3A4A- 6A Sound- – 3B- – 6A Email- – 3E- – – Handling data1D, 1E2C, 2E 3C4C, 4D5B, 5C – Research/Internet1C2C- – – 6D Modelling1A, 1C- 3D- 5D6B Control1F2D- 4E5E6C Monitoring- – – – 5F6C Using this table can help to identify where you will need to add to the QCA scheme to ensure progression. Progression There are a number of issues of progression which the QCA scheme does not address: Gaps in experiences as highlighted by the above table Issues of progression which arise if the school only delivers the units in the year specified.
This is generally more of an issue where planning for Foundation, Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 are separate and teachers do not “take” from other year groups when appropriate. See example 1 below. Gaps which are highlighted by mapping the requirements of ICT use by other subjects. See example 2 Example 1 – Foundation Stage pupils will use ICT across a range of areas of learning. Young children’s experience and capability has increased since the introduction of the QCA scheme, with the result that many of the early learning outcomes in the Year 1 units are already well embedded before Year 1.
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To add to this, the Year 1 and 2 units are less taxing than the capabilities of year two pupils who are achieving Level 3 in other subjects. As a result, you may wish to consider the introduction of some whole Year 3 units or some elements (ie the short focussed tasks) before Year 3. Unit 3A on Combining Text and Graphics is one such example. Example 2 – The use of Internet is a Year 6 unit. This focuses on pupils’ ability to skim, scan and extract appropriate information, rather than just keying in a URL to find information. It maps well into the Literacy strategy for Year 6.
Any scheme would need to consider how the Internet will be introduced to children at a younger age. For example, Year 2 pupils may access web sites pre-prepared by the teacher by clicking on a Word file of links. Year 4 pupils will need to develop skills of using the Internet to fulfill the wide range of expectations from other subjects. There is no QCA ICT unit to cover the development of these skills but any tailored scheme would need to address this gap. See attached table of links with brief outline of learning objectives. Unit 4 (additional): Internet use
To purposefully navigate a CD ROM or Internet page. Begin to use search engines and URLs. Table : Opportunities to apply and develop ICT techniques, knowledge and capability PoS/Strategy referenceQCA referenceActivities literacy Y4, T1Reading comprehension 17To identify features of non-fiction texts in print and ICT, eg headings, lists, bullet points, captions which support the reader in gaining information efficiently Yr 4, T1Reading comprehension 23To investigate how reading strategies are adapted to suit the different properties of ICT texts…..
Reading 7a, 9b To be able to read a range of materials including print and ICT based reference and information materials (eg dictionaries, encyclopedias, CD ROMs, Internet)Yr 4, T 2Non-fiction reading comprehension 17To scan texts in print or on screen to locate key words or phrases, useful headings and key sentences …. ScienceUnit 4D Solids, liquids and how they can be separatedUse CD ROMs to illustrate molten metals, or molten lava ….
Unit 4a Moving and growingUse of CD ROM to investigate skeleton GeographyUnit 10 A village in IndiaUse maps, atlases, CD ROM and Internet to find information linked to Europe, Asia, India and Chembakolli History 4a, 4b Find out about the events, people and changes studied from an appropriate range of sources including ICT based sources.
Ask and answer questions and select and record information relevant to the focus of the enquiryUnit 9 Second World WarWide range of research into this topic – Unit 6a Roman case study Unit 6b Anglo-Saxon case study Unit 6c Viking case studyWide range of research into these topics – Unit 10 Ancient EgyptWide range of research into this topic REUnit 4A How and why do Hindus worship at home and in the mandir? Use CD ROMs to investigate the role of the shrine and for further research – Unit 4B Celebrations: Christmas journeysUse CD ROMs or Internet to to collect pictures showing Israel – Unit 4C Why is Easter important for Christians?
General research – Unit 4D What religions are represented in our neighbourhood? Use Internet or CD ROMs to form part of other research to discover which religious traditions are represented in our neighbourhood. PEUnit 2 AthleticsCD ROM used to show movement of the body. Also potential to link to Unit 4b if digital camera used In writing the scheme of work, or adapting the one written by QCA to fit your circumstances, you will need to take into account the stage of development of the school in relation to such outside factors such as the NGfL rollout of equipment, and staff basic skills expertise and when NOF training will be undertaken.
These factors will affect whether you will complete your scheme in one go or take a piecemeal approach and build it up overtime. Approaches to writing a Scheme of Work You can build up a scheme of work in a variety of ways, by: formalising existing practice – starting from where you are now focusing on one particular part of the ICT curriculum by developing an area eg linked to NOF training (Literacy, Numeracy or Science) using the QCA scheme as a starting point developing chronologically starting at Year 1 and progressing through to Year 6.
We will now consider the different approaches to writing a scheme of work and you can decide which parts can be achieved quickly and which may be developed over time. Formalising existing practice Staff will already be teaching ICT to pupils during the school year and the scheme of work is a way of formalising what they do by writing it down. In this case, the scheme of work is a record of current practice, showing the ICT that is taught on a regular basis. The advantage of this approach is that the scheme matches what teachers already do and is based on successful ICT.
The disadvantage is that not all of the programmes of study may be covered and that pupils may have more ICT in one year than another. It is a quick starting point, however; which can be added to as you develop areas of ICT. It will also be possible to check against the QCA scheme , the missing gaps and target training. Focusing on an area of ICT, eg linked to NOF training This is a way of planning for the development of ICT based on a focus which can involve all staff. It is likely that you will be working with all staff during the NOF training linked to the core subjects.
This will enable you to develop ICT capability through the work of specific subjects. If some staff are still unsure in their approach to ICT there is an opportunity to develop ICT skills and areas of ICT in a systematic way. You will need to arrange a staff meeting to discuss the plan of work. Starting from the QCA scheme This is a good strategy to use if ICT is a priority area within your school and there are a number of staff meetings already allocated to ICT. You will need to look at the QCA scheme for ICT and divide it up so that each year group has the required units.
Bear in mind Example 1 in the section on Progression. Factors which will influence you may be: The strength of provision for Early Years The equipment you have in school Whether the school has a computer suite? How much time can be booked for each class – one or two hours a week? Special projects which will limit or increase the amount of ICT which can be included. e. g. A residential trip or school play may mean increased opportunities for ICT. The amount of time taken up by SATs: this may mean that there is reduced time for ICT and so more needs to be planned in other years to compensate.
All these factors will make a difference to how much ICT can be covered, and what parts of the programme of study/QCA scheme can be emphasised. These factors will vary from school to school and it is important that when you divide up the QCA units they fit with the way your school works. Developing chronologically You could begin by developing the work done in Year I and extend it to cover the full QCA units so that ICT is secure. The breadth of this could then be extended year-by-year until all year groups have full coverage of ICT.
It is for you to consider which approach will suit you and your school best – you may even want to use a combination of approaches. Whatever you decide, don’t feel you have to complete the whole scheme of work in one session. There will be an impact on your scheme as children become better as the scheme and expertise in the school develops. It is unlikely that year 6 pupils will be able to cover all the Year 6 units at the start. Staff may still becoming familiar with a new network, with new software and pupils do not have the full range of skills on which to develop.
What activities will go into a scheme of work? Once we have established what we want pupils to learn we need to decide which activities to use to make our teaching effective. We must consider how many experiences pupils will need to be able to achieve what we want them to learn. For example, pupils are required to control a robotic toy with a sequence of instructions. Would they need one, two, three or more experiences before they were proficient? While this will vary from child to child, we need to decide on a number for the average child so that we can plan that number of activities during the school year.
The next step is to look for opportunities within existing work where you could include ICT activities. Some are more easily included than others. For example, writing will fit into all areas of the curriculum. Not all experiences need to come from the same area of the curriculum. If we think of the example of the robotic toy this could fit into ‘direction giving’ in geography ‘shape and space’ in maths or a topic on toys in history or technology. This would provide a number of experiences for children to develop their learning.
The table below shows specific links for ICT Unit 1F to other areas of the curriculum 1F Understanding instructions and making things happen Table : Opportunities to apply and develop ICT techniques, knowledge and capability PoS/Strategy referenceQCA referenceActivities Literacy- – Numeracy Number 1f :To be able to communicate in spoken, pictorial and written form- – Shape Space and measures 1b To be able to select and use appropriate mathematical equipment when solving problems involving measuresYr 1 spring 86-88 Measure, shape and spaceDescribe directions.
Devise instructions to make a floor robot reach a particular place ScienceUnit 1D Light and Dark Control of torches / switches Geography – 2cUnit 2 How can we make our local area safe? Pedestrian crossings controlled in a predefined sequence by the press of a button. When we are considering activities, there will be some which need continuing attention and which fit easily into normal curriculum activities and others which are better planned in a topic and which may not be repeated so often.
ICT activities based on writing, painting and handling data to produce graphs and answer questions will normally be carried out regularly perhaps every half term. Those activities using adventure programs and Logo type activities will perhaps be carried out once or twice a year when they can be incorporated. You will need to check that pupils are getting an adequate experience of all the programme of study over a key stage. This can be monitored by checking the planned activities against the areas and deciding if there are enough of each type of activity to develop learning.
The other check that needs to be made is whether the activities are pitched at the correct level to help children progress in their learning. This can be done by looking at the level descriptions issued by QCA and reproduced here in the section on Assessment. How will lessons be planned in a scheme of work? It is unlikely that all the activities in your scheme of work will be broken down and planned as lessons. However we have found it a useful exercise to clarify exactly what is to be taught, what methods are most appropriate and what resources need to be gathered together so that teaching can be effective.
It may be that detailed planning reveals that the teacher needs to prepare and understand the programme better before it can be taught or that pupils need a reminder of previous work before they can begin. Even if this does not apply to you, it may be a useful way of supporting another teacher in developing his or her use of ICT. Implementing the scheme of work Once the scheme of work is complete you will need to make sure that it is used by all staff. If you have been able to consult regularly with staff and the activities have been tried and introduced gradually the scheme may only need reviewing from time to time.
Strategies that work well include: using the scheme of work as a basis for teachers to identify their training needs by looking at which activities they can do and which they will need help to do. Support can then be planned and more of the scheme implemented. selecting an area where everyone feels weak and working on that together perhaps after focusing on it in a development day. This can be used to review the appropriateness of the activities in the scheme of work and how well they fit into everyday teaching. nsuring that when other curriculum areas are reviewed, ICT opportunities are discussed and tried out. Whichever scenario fits your school, the best method is to implement your scheme in a gradual and planned way. A simple proforma can help you identify how the QCA schemes and other opportunities in the curriculum can be planned across the year. For example: A scheme of work is “a plan for something”. A teacher’s scheme of work is therefore his plan of action which should enable him/her to organise teaching activities ahead of time.
It is a summarised forecast of work which the teacher considers adequate and appropriate for the class to cover within a given period from those topics which are already set in the syllabus. A well prepared scheme of work should among other things:- Give an overview of the total course content. Provide for a sequential listing of learning tasks. Show a relationship between content and support materials. Provide a basis for: long range planning, training and evaluation of the course.
A scheme of work can be made to cover one week, one month, one term or even one year, depending on the duration of a given programme. Most programmes in our educational institutions take between one and four years. Each year is divided into 3 terms with each term lasting 3 months or 13 weeks. In such a case a scheme of work should be made for each term (13 weeks).
Ideally schemes of work should be prepared before classes begin. SOME IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS TO BE BORN IN MIND WHEN PREPARING A SCHEME OF WORK: 1. Understanding the syllabus.
The classroom teacher may not necessarily be involved in the initial stages of curriculum development, but (s)he is expected to interpret the curriculum and implement it correctly. This calls for a thorough understanding of the syllabus and the content, in order to achieve the stated objectives. The teacher is expected to act like a policeman or a judge who is called upon to administer the law though he did not make it. It is therefore very important that the teacher be thoroughly conversant with the curriculum in order to implement it successfully. 2. Preceding and succeeding syllabus content
In most cases topics from the syllabus may not be arranged in the order in which they are supposed to be taught. Some topics will require the knowledge of the previous ones while others are quite independent. The teacher should not only identify the essential learning content but also arrange the content in logical teaching order considering the proceeding and succeeding syllabus content. Syllabus contents of related subject: The mistake which many teachers make is to scheme for their subject without considering the contents of related subjects. This is very wrong and should be highly discouraged.
Quite often the teaching of a given topic, in a given subject may be impeded by lack of skills or knowledge to be acquired in a different subject. Existing scheme of work for the subject If a scheme of work is already available for the subject, it would be a waste of effort and time for the teacher to break new ground again. In this case, the teacher can revise the existing scheme to suit his/her students and to bring it up to date. Reference material and examination The teacher should be familiar with reference material that is available for effective coverage of the topics in the scheme of work.
There is nothing more disturbing than finding out that a topic that is already covered could have been more interesting, enjoyable and even better understood if certain materials or teaching aids that are available in school had been utilised. The type of examination the students are being prepared for should bear in mind that some levels require more revision time than others and therefore, scheme for revision appropriately. Time estimation Although there are 13 weeks in one term, it is not usually possible to use all these for effective teaching for a variety of reasons.
For purposes of determining how much material can be covered in any given time, it would be misleading to assume that a subject requiring 9 periods per week has 6 x 13 periods available for teaching. The number of effective teaching periods varies according to both predictable and unpredictable interruptions. Effective teaching time must therefore be estimated before topics are selected. The most common interruptions that are likely to disrupt a scheme of work include: Public Holidays Examinations (should be schemed for) if they are internal Revisions (should be schemed for) Open days Sports days Planned school breaks e. g. mid-term break e. . c. The teacher/instructor should check with the administration of the school or Youth Polytechnic dates for such events before scheming. Although the new syllabuses under the 8-4-4 framework give time estimation for each topic, these should be taken as guidelines only. Finer adjustments need to be made depending on the time available for teaching. COMPONENTS OF A SCHEME OF WORK ORGANISATION: Refers to the organisation/institution one is working or training in. TRAINEES LEVEL: Part 1 refers to the grade level in training e. g. technician. In case of colleges and other institutions, some means of identification are used e. . K. T. T. C. contribution Tech. part 1. SUBJECT: This refers to the subject being schemed which may be theory or practical. This refers to a particular term within a given year. Years may vary from organisation to organisation depending on time of entry. DATE OF PREPARATION Refers to the time the scheme of work is completed. This should be before instruction commences. DATE OF REVISION Due to overlapping or underplanning experienced during instruction or unforeseen interruptions, it is necessary to revise the scheme of work in order to accommodate the unexpected difficulties.
This date should be indicated in the space provided in the form. SYLLABUS TOPIC The topics in the syllabus needs to be rearranged in the order in which they are supposed to be taught. This is because some topics are build up e. g. before one learns to multiply he should have done additions, e. t. c. The syllabus topics should then follow that order. WEEK Most organisations are specific in time allocation and each week should be spelt out in the week column. The numeral representing the week should be distinctly written centrally in the week column.
Weeks should be separated by a line running across the page especially when the same scheme of work form contains more than one week. NUMBER OF PERIODS The subject may have one, two or more periods in one week. Some periods may be single, double or triple. Numbering of the period can take the form either ordinal or cardinal system. Ordinal systems refers to the order in which periods for that subject appear on the timetable. In either system, numbering should be done as reflected on the time table for that subject.
A line, beginning from the column of periods should be drawn straight across the page to separate the periods. When two spaced periods are indicated on the timetable in the same day, then there should be two distinct rows for two periods. The numbering process should be repeated for the other weeks. SUB-TOPIC: LESSON TITLES This should be clear and definite. The instructor should single out all the sub-topics/lesson titles in a particular syllabus topic. He should then estimate what sub topics/lesson titles will require a single period, double period or triple period, and then scheme accordingly. OBJECTIVES
Each sub-topic/lesson title should be followed by an objective(s) which is meant to pinpoint the anticipated learning behaviour of the learners. The specific nature of the sub-topic/lesson titles does not permit broad objectives which might not be realised by the end of that period. The objectives must be stated in such a manner that there is a measurable aspect manifested by the end of the lesson e. g. the lesson title Simple interest might have the objective – “students should be able to calculate simple interest on given principals using methods of (a) direct production, and (b) simple interest formula”.
The lesson title conduction of heat in metals might have the objective – “trainees will be able to classify good and bad conductors of heat after carrying out the experiment, described in the worksheet 4”, e. t. c. KEY POINTS/METHODS These are the central ideas which the teacher anticipated to use during the lesson. They are an elaboration of the sub-topic/lesson title. They form the backbone of the lesson. Keypoints should be stated in a specific, precise manner, preferably in form of phrases which conveys the full meaning intended. Under no circumstances should key points be stated as activities or active in sense.
APPLICATION (Student activities, assignment, homework, practice).
For any concept learnt, the teacher would like to see his/her learners put it to practical use. In this column the teacher should think of specific activities that the learners will perform while in the class and Nos. 11, 12, 18 for homework, students will answer comprehension questions after reading the passage on page 35 or their class text book e. t. c. Applications must be designed in order to realise and consolidate concretely the objectives of the lesson. (Tools Equipment, Apparatus, Chalk Board, Chart e. t. c. )
Resource materials for specific content coverage used in scheming are necessary and should be noted down with their relevant pages for ease in reference during lesson planning. References include books, handouts, worksheets, journals, reports, etc. It is necessary for the teacher to indicate the books, their authors and relevant pages. Teaching aids are an integral part of an effective lesson. Aids that the teacher intends to use should be indicated in the scheme of work. Teaching aids are usually in the form of apparatus, equipment, materials and of course the real thing if readily available and appropriate.
The teacher should not indicate a teaching aid which will not be available in class. NOTES Most student teachers forget to include teaching aids in the scheme of work. REMARKS DATE WHEN TAUGHT Remarks in the scheme of work should be made immediately the lesson is over. The teacher is supposed to indicate whether what was planned for the period has been covered, whether there was over planning or failure of lesson and reasons for either case, e. t. c. remarks suggested are meant to help the teacher in his consequent and future planning.
Remarks such as “excellent” “done”, “OK”, “well done”, “satisfactory”, “taught”, etc. ight not be very useful to the teacher. Such remarks as “the lesson was not very well done because of inadequate teaching aids”, or “pupils were able to apply concept learnt in solving problems as evident from supervised practice”, e. t. c. are appropriate. After the remarks, it is necessary to write the date when this lesson was taught.