The topic of study was the buying behaviour of Generation Y consumers in Northern Ireland in relation to fashion goods. Electronic databases were searched to find Journals which were relevant to the topic area being studied. Business source premier and Sage were the two Databases used in this instance. The keywords used to find relevant journals were ‘Bricks and Mortar’, ‘Click’, ‘Generation Y’, ‘buying behaviour’ and ‘fashion goods’. relevant Journals were found in relation to the topic of study. There is a gap in the literature for research on the buying behaviour of consumers in Northern Ireland therefore other studies were used to find information on the research topic. The research was all based on college students in the U. S and one study was in Korea. The five research journals all used the same methodology, they all use questionnaires to find out about the buying behaviour of Generation Y consumers.
The themes I used throughout this review were ‘Generation Y Trends’, ‘Bricks and Mortar’ and the ‘Economic Recession’ as they were the major themes used throughout the five research Journals. Generation Y trends: According to Belleau and Summers (2007: page 244) there are ‘approximately 60 million members of generation Y consumers… in the marketplace. ’ Lodes and Buff found that there were no trends in relation to the demographics of the respondents and the buying behaviour of Generation Y consumers.
Lodes and Buff state that there is ‘no significant gender differences in overall brand loyalty’ (2009: page 132) Goldsmith and Flynn also state that (2005: page 275) ‘there was no significant association between sex, race, income socio-economic status’ and buying behaviour. Although the other three journal articles lack the information with regards to the trends in demographic and the buying behaviour in the market place. Kim & Knight & Pelton (2009: page 248) states that ‘Students aged 19-25 represent a subgroup of Generation Y whose purchasing power exceeds US $200 bill a year. Kim & Knight & Pelton (2009: page 247) adds that ‘Koreans consumer’s perspectives of the U. S. apparel brand consisted of three dimensions; perceived quality, prestigious image and emotional value. ’ ‘Brand awareness affected the prestigious image of the U. S. apparel brand in the Korean market’ (Kim & Knight & Pelton 2009: page 247) This study looks at the brand perception by the Generation Y consumers in comparison to the other studies whom fail to look at this.
Introduction Marketers in today’s business environment are presented with the particular challenge of circumventing conflicted messaging, over-saturation of marketing initiatives, and consumer hesitation and guarded behaviour in order to achieve their objectives of enhancing long term brand loyalty and encouraging product purchases. While there are various environmental stimuli which may influence ...
Goldsmith and Flynn (2005: page 171) ‘compares and contrasts clothing buyers who buy in store, on the internet and through catalogs so as to better understand these behaviours. ’ Goldsmith and Flynn’s study is lacking in certain areas as it fails to tell which of the three modes of shopping Generation Y consumers use the most. Goldsmith and Flynn (2005: 280) found that ‘online and catalogue shopping were predicted to be more closely linked than online shopping and store shopping. ‘This implies that brick and mortar stores should fear the internet as shopping alternative less than originally thought’ (Goldsmith and Flynn 2005: 280) Thought from the findings it is clear that ‘those who buy more clothing will do so in all three modes. ’ (Goldsmith and Flynn 2005: page 281) Belleau and Summers (2007: page 244) based their research on ‘fashion merchandise made from emu leather. ’ Although this gives in-depth finding with regards to this specific product, it fails to give us an overview on the general buying behaviour of Generation Y consumers.
Belleau and Summers (2007: page 244) found that ‘respondents attitudes significantly influenced their purchase intention. The more favourable the respondent’s attitude, the higher the purchase intention. ’ Belleau and Summers (2007: page 245) claim ‘the most significant problem is the lack of knowledge and understanding of the potential markets in the U. S. ’ ‘As this study looks at the relationship between attitudes and behavioural intention’ it fails to take into account which mode of shopping the target market, generation Y use to purchase the goods. Belleau and Summers, 2007: page 250) Lester & Forman & Loyd (2005: page 127) based their study to ‘identify the nature and extent of internet use by college students and second to determine college students online shopping habits and whether the students purchase merchandise on the internet’ Lester & Forman & Loyd (2005: page 137) ‘look at the other demographic groups’ which would enable them to compare and see if there is a difference in generation Y consumers in regards to other groups.
In every business enterprise, studying the behavior of their customers is a must for a business to know how to target and satisfy their consumer’s needs and wants. Consumer behavior is the process involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas or experiences to satisfy needs and desires. (Solomon, 2002) We can never tell what consumers to buy and ...
This enabled them to conclude that ‘No matter what age internet shopping’s rising. ’ (Lester & Forman & Loyd 2005: page 127) Lester & Forman & Loyd (2005: page 127) state that ‘although there is great potential for selling goods online, little is known about consumer response to apparel shopping on the internet. ’ This study is based on false assumption that college students make up all of the generation Y consumer market which is incorrect as there are more than just college students in the category.
Although Lester & Forman & Loyd (2005: page 136) like none of the other studies looks at the reason why consumers shop online rather than in store and the highest rating was the ‘ability to locate ‘hard to find merchandise. ’ Lodes and Buff (2009: page 127) states that ‘brand loyalty, customer satisfaction and the effects of an economic recession were evaluated’ in this study. Lodes and Buff (2009: page 132) found that ‘College students are brand loyal to higher priced items such as MP3 players and laptop computers. ’ ‘Although were not brand loyal to commodity goods or supermarket items. (Page 133) Lodes and Buff (2009: page 127) state that overall it was found that ‘students are not brand loyal consumers. ’ Lodes and Buff (2009: page 127 found that ‘there is no gender differences with regards to overall brand loyalty’ This information enables them to show correlation between gender in relation to buying behaviour as 3 of the studies failed to show. Economic Climate: With reference to the current economic climate there are only two studies which takes this into account Lodes and buff (2009: page127) states that ‘purchase behaviour has not been greatly affected by the economic recession.
Case Study for Student Analysis This first thing, which Carl should do, is to contact Monica and tell her about the problems he is having at the moment. He should explain everything in detail, so the best way to do would be to send her email. At the end of the letter he should reassure her that despite all of these difficulties, he will do his best to change the situation, and have everything on ...
This means that there is a gap in the literature of the other 5 research journals used. Lester & Forman & Loyd (2005: page 124) also state that ‘economic conditions have had a staggering impact on retail sales over the past three years’ However he fails to mention the affect this has had on the generation Y consumers. As the economic climate has only took a down turn in the past few years it may be evident that due to the dating of the studies this is why there is not an emphasis placed on this important factor compared to the results of a study taking which would be taking today. Click’ versus ‘bricks and Mortar’: Kim & Knight & Pelton (2009: page 252) found that ‘in the past twelve months students spent an average of USD$ 592. 31 in store, USD$ 51. 44 online and USD$23. 71 on catalogues. ’ Lodes and buff (2009: page 131) stated that ‘over 60% of the respondents have spent over $200 in the last six months on a single purchase. ’ However it fails to mention which type of mode of shopping the respondents used which 3 of the others studies do. Lester & Forman & Loyd (2005: page 123) found that ‘91% of students made purchase online in this study. Goldsmith and Flynn (2005 page 271) found that ‘consumers who shopped more and spent more on clothing done so via all three shopping modes. ’ Belleau and Summer fails to look at which mode of shopping the consumers use to purchase products. It places its emphasis on the purchase intention of the respondents ‘the more favourable the respondents attitudes, the higher the purchase intention. ’ (2007: page 244) Belleau and Summers (2007) and Kim & Knight & Pelton (2009) focus their study by using a product to find out the information they want to know about the buying behaviour of their consumers.
Consumer Behaviour: the study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires. Consumer behaviour is a process Buyer behaviour: the interaction between consumers and producers at the time of purchase. * Exchange (two or more organizations or people give and receive something of value) ...
Belleau and Summers (2007) used ‘Polo Ralph Lauren’ and Kim & Knight & Pelton (2009) used ‘fashion merchandise made of emu leather’ which the other 3 research papers do not do. However the 3 papers which do not use a product will get a clearer image on the buying behaviour of Generation Y as they will not be showing their purchasing behaviour for a specific product but will get a general view of the purchasing behaviour of fashion in general.
From this Literature review it was found that due to the small number of generation Y consumers which were used for the research on this topic it is hard to generalise and gather a full conclusion on the buying behaviour of the generation Y consumer Group. Each of the papers reviewed all used university students to carry complete their research but as Lodes and Buff argue that ‘students represent only a segment of generation Y consumers. ’ (2009: page 133) Belleau and Summers (2007) argue that the ‘sample was non random… nd not a true representation of the selected consumer group -60 million’ Two of the studies had to be interpreted with caution due to limitations of using single well known brand in their studies. Further extensive research must be carried out in relation to the other consumer groups buying behaviour to understand the extent of the buying behaviour of Generation Y consumers. This study could be developed further by qualitative data by carrying out an interview with the consumer group to get a fuller understanding of the feelings of generation Y consumers.