Although recent studies show a significant drop in the extent to which women leave the labor force to bear children (Desai & Waite, 1991; Waite, Haggstrom, & Kanouse, 1985), child care responsibilities continue to exert a significant influence on women’s labor force continuity.
Numerous social and demographic changes in the workforce include increased women’s labor force participation, the aging of the workforce, delayed childbearing, and the increased number of dual-earner couples (Moen, Robinson, & Fields, 1994), resulting in profound changes in the number and kinds of family roles that employee’s occupy (e.g., spouse, parent, and/or caregiver to aging adults).
Recently, many child care center are being implemented by employer at the workplace because many parents are busy with their jobs so there is no time to take care of their children. About 500 home-based and 26 community-based childcare centres have been set up nationwide under an initiative by Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development. Collectively, these centres can take in 5,200 children. The ministry, together with the Association of Registered Childcare Providers Malaysia, had trained 2,300 women on basic childcare so that they could start their own home-based services. Sixteen of 25 ministries and at least 140 public and statutory bodies had also set up their own daycare centres.
The Term Paper on Health and Child Care Practitioner
Keeping children healthy and safe is very important. To ensure children’s health, safety and wellbeing every home nations has sets of standards or welfare requirements which settings must meet. The standards vary from country to country, but they all exists in order to protect children. Child care practitioner need to be familiar with minimum Welfare requirements, Safeguarding children, Promoting ...
Since 1990, women’s participation in the workforce had hovered at 44 to 47 per cent, as opposed to men’s 87 per cent involvement. According to the Human Resources Ministry, Malaysia has an untapped latent workforce of 1.2 to 1.6 million in women. A study by the National Population and Family Development Board five years ago showed that more than half of the women who quit their jobs cited childcare as the reason (New Straights Times).
Therefore, parents need child care center as a place of care for their children. In addition, child care center is an opportunity for women who have not had a job working in child care center because mostly child care center workers required women. Employees who are satisfied with their work environments are assumed to be more loyalty to the organization better than those who are less satisfied. Lau and May (1998) indicated that companies, which are able to enhance the quality of work environments for members, enjoy strong growth and profitability and gain an advantage in their recruiting and retention. Excessive employee turnover rate is detrimental to organizations. It is related to direct and indirect costs; it affects morale, productivity, reputation, and survival of the organizations (Hinkin & Tracey, 2000).
By Fraenkel et al,(1988) the case studies is the problem that caused a researcher wants to study. Therefore, the research we have done this in turn can reduce the confusion and reducing the problems associated with the quality with satisfaction child care center and turnover intention.
From what is stated above, the problems that we want to examine is the relationship between satisfaction with the quality of on-site child care center and turnover intention. However, the problem in this study is that lack of a research in which to get associated with our research topic. Although the media has been intrigued by parenting in the workplace practices and top newspapers have featured articles about parents who bring their children to work, such arrangements have had little systematic study (Mary Secret, 2005).
While there is an extensive literature analyzing women’s participation in the labor force and the type of child care selected by parents in the United States, little is known about parental choice of on-site center care. This is not surprising because most studies make use of cross-sectional household-level data sets and the incidence of on-site center use is still small (Rachel Connelly, Deborah S. Degraff and Rachel Willis,2002).
The Research paper on Child Centered Education
Principles for child centred practice SUMMARY PRINCIPLES FOR CHILD CENTRED PRACTICE TIMELY, DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE, PARTICIPATORY AND COLLABORATIVE This document provides a set of principles, which can be used to evaluate the ‘child centredness’ of policies and procedures in child protection. In the absence of a distinct body of knowledge about the meaning of ‘child centred’ practice it draws ...
Besides that, there is also little research that examined the impact of work-family culture on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. Although previous studies have found the implementation of workplace supports to be associated with positive outcomes, research has also demonstrated that an unsupportive organizational culture may undermine the effectiveness of such programs (Thompson, Thomas,&Maier, 1992).
Recently, turnover intention is a crucial issue in the organization. However, little attention has been given on relationship between satisfaction with child care center and turnover intention. In addition, the relationship between satisfaction with child care center and turnover intention has still received lesser attention among Malaysian scholars. Hence this study investigates the relationship between satisfaction with child care center and turnover intention in the Malaysian context.
The objective is the direction to guide this study. The objective is very important in ensuring that we obtain data as needed. It also can be used to measure whether our findings related or not. Without objectives, the study can not be done. Similarly, if the objective data and analysis are not similar, then the study will be carried out is doomed to failure.
The purpose of this research is to study the relationship between employee`s satisfaction with the quality of on-site child care center and employee turnover intention.
The specific objectives of this study are:
I. To determine on-site child care center provided by the organization.
II. To describe the level of satisfaction with the quality of on-site child care center and turnover intention.
III. To determine the relationship between employees’ satisfaction with the quality of on-site child care center and employees’ turnover intention.
The Essay on Child Centered Play Therapy
Within the experiment a host of 20 school-aged children were to be used with 10 variables being boys and 10 variables being girls. All variables used were between 7 - 14 years of age. The second method selected - a survey - was a written questionnaire that would be distributed by a physician’s office that treats children with ADHD. The written questionnaire would consist of a host of questions ...
IV. To explain the challenges faced by organizations providing on-site child care center.
This study is important because we can prove that on-site child care center is necessary for employees and the organizations itself. In addition, this study can be a guideline for organizations to create a new policy to provide an on-site child care center.
Limitation of the study
In order to obtain information and data for this study, there are number of study limitations. The first is, English language barrier. We have difficulties to speak in English with The Chairman of Ayu Manja Soleha Child Care Center as we are not prepared for it. For the second child care which is Electrisola Child Care Center, it is located far away from University Putra Malaysia. We do not know the exactly location of this child care center, so, it takes longer time for us to find the exact place. We also lost during searching for the location of this place. On the other hand, it is costly for us as a student.
Second limitation is the questionnaires are not fully return to us. We only get 20 out of 70 questionnaires. We have to go to the child care center a few times in order to get at least 50 questionnaires. But, due to some miscommunication between us and the child care supervisor, we cannot get the rest of the questionnaires due to the less commitment by the parents.
Third limitation is financial problems. We have to use our own money to photocopy extra 20 questionnaires. The other limitations is only two companies were represented, therefore the findings may not generalize to other companies. The last limitation is, it is difficult for us to find for the journal sources to be used as references and guidelines.
An operational definition identifies one or more specific observable conditions or events and then tells the researcher how to measure that event. Typically, there are several operational definition possibilities for variables and values. The operation chosen will often have an immediate impact on the course of the research, especially the findings. This definition is a specific definition that can measure the properties or a variable.
Operational definition is a big influence in research. The definition of operations that we have studied is:
The Essay on Attachment and Infant Child Care Centers
There are many advantages in an infant and toddlers emotional attachment to caregivers. Infants pay special attention to attachment figures. This attention helps the child learn from how the adult reacts and how they speak. Infants learn through informal direction, not a formal lesson or instruction from a teacher. Infants and toddlers learn how to respond to events based on how their caregiver(s) ...
1) Turnover intention focused on leaving the organization by employees.
2) On-site child care center focused on flexibility of arrangements, child care center service, facilities provided, child care worker ratio, compatible location and monthly fee.
Due to the increase of work load among employees, an evaluation is made of the evidence supporting claims that employer-sponsored child care programs improve employee work behaviors and attitudes. On-site child care center is not only for employed mothers, it can also be helpful to employed fathers as well. In Malaysia, this on-site child care center is still being considered to be implemented.
Workplace and employee survey (WES) defines, employer offered child care support refers to help through an on-site child care center, assistance with external suppliers or assistance with informal arrangements. According to Neal, Chapman, Ingersoll-Dayton, and Emlen (1993), there are three general types of workplace supports and child care center is one of the services that are provided directly by or through the employer that address an employee’s specific need. Rachel Connelly states that on-site child care center is a child care center located at either parent’s place of employment. While the number of on-site centers is small relative to the number total numbers of families using child care during working hours, Malaysia nowadays encourage employer-sponsored child care center at workplace.
Availability of workplace supports is often related to Social Exchange Theory. According to Thomas & Thomas (1990), assistance with child care can increase productivity and employee morale and reduce turnover, absenteeism and accident rates. Furthermore, Sinclair, Hannigan and Tetrick (1995) used social exchange theory to explain the relationship between availability of family-friendly supports and positive job-related attitudes, hypothesizing that organizations and their employees are involve in a commitment exchange and, absolutely this exchange will influence their behavior and attitude. Perceive supportive work-family culture is a component of perceived organizational support which has been related to organizational commitment (Eisenberger, Fasolo & Davis-LaMastro, 1990; Shore and Tetrick, 1991).
The Essay on Child Care Centers V. Family Care
To send your child to day-care or not to send your child to daycare: that is the question. Whether ‘tis nobler in the mind to enjoy the comforts of family, or to leave your child with daycare professionals. Leaving a child with a family member or in a day care is a tough decision and has many differences that impact your child. There are many factors to consider before choosing between family care ...
Employees will have a more positive attitude toward the organization if they view their organization involved in a positive social exchange. According to Sinclair (1995), there are positive relationship between availability of workplace supports and job attitudes such as lower intentions to leave by employees, affective commitment and perceived organizational support.
Figure 1: Proposed model of On-site Child Care Center.
From the proposed model of on-site child care center above, it can be seen that, when employer sponsored child care center at the workplace, it can reduced turnover, absenteeism and accident rates but it can also increase employees productivity and their morale, where their employees become more committed to the organization and work.
Hypothesis 1: When employees satisfied with on-site child care center, it will reduce turnover intention.
Hypothesis 2: There is strong relationship between satisfaction with quality of on-site child care and turnover intention.
Previous research has found that policies initiates to help employees meet family responsibilities had the desired impact on the organization itself, but have not necessarily had the desired outcome on work-family conflict (Kossek & Ozeki, 1998).
We can also differentiate among between movers and stayers among employed mothers with factors of workplace supports and child care satisfaction. We make a hypothesis that intentions to leave by employees are related to availability of on-site child care center.
Research design is used to structure the research, to show how all of the major parts of the research project including the samples or groups, measures, treatments or programs, and methods of assignments. It is also work together to try to address the central research questions. For this research, design that been used is quantitative. By using quantitative research its assess the impact of these variables on an outcome (John W. Creswell, 2008).
Our group research location is at Ayu Manja Soleha Child Care Center which is located at Ministry of Education, Putrajaya. And another research is at Electrisola Child Care Center where are located at Kampung Janda Baik, Bentong Pahang.
The Term Paper on Well Child Care For A Somali Bantu Family
Running Head: WELL CHILD CARE FOR A REFUGEE SOMALI BANTU FAMILY Well Child Care for a Somali Bantu Family Community This project consisted of the Somali Bantu refugees living in the Tennessee Village Community in Nashville, TN. Within this population set, the subset includes families with children aged 12 months and younger. It is estimated that 8-12, 000 Somali Bantu will to arrive in the US in ...
Population and sampling
Population is the group of individuals having one characteristic that distinguishes them from other groups. The population of this research including 70 people of parents who are sent their children to the child care center. Sample is the group of participants in a study selected from the target population from which the researcher generalizes to the target populations. Sample for this research is 20 people that have been chosen by convenience sampling. This type of sampling is a type of non probability sampling which involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population which is close to hand. That is, a sample population selected because it is readily available and convenient. It may be through meeting the person or including a person in the sample when one meets them or chosen by finding them through technological means such as the internet or through phone. This research using such a sample cannot scientifically make generalizations about the total population from this sample because it would not be representative enough.
Research instrument in this research can explain specifically about measurement of each research variables. For variable quality of childcare it contain 15 items and the instrument is by A. C Emlen, P.E Koren, and K. Schultze (2000) based from their study of title A packet of scales for measuring quality of child care from a parent’s point of view with summary of method and findings. For variables of turnover intention, the instruments contain 4 items by M.Picard-Lessard (1995) and his study titles. The role of on-site daycare in helping parents balance work and family responsibilities. For the quality of child care center that contain 15 items was rated on a 1 to 5 scale with 1 = “strongly agree”, 2 = “disagree”, 3 =”slightly agree”, 4 = “agree”, 5 = “strongly disagree.” For variable turn over intention, there were 4 item where rated same with quality of child care center and last items were reverse coded as needed so that higher scores reflected higher agreement.
Methods of data collection
We are using variety data collections for this research and they are distributing questionnaire and face to face interview. A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. The questionnaire was invented by Sir Francis Galton. Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of surveys in that they are cheap, do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys, and often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data. However, such standardized answers may frustrate users. Questionnaires are also sharply limited by the fact that respondents must be able to read the questions and respond to them. Commitment from respondents is important to answer all the questions. Level of measurement can divide into four levels which are nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Skala likert are using to identify respond to the research subject. An interview is a conversation between two or more people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee. In this research, we had interview the supervisor of the child care center to get more information about the child care center and the parents who are sent their child to this child care center.
Quantitative analyze data including computing or inputs from questionnaire which are insert to certain software. Data analyze must meet all the objectives which have been identified. This analyzing process is important because it can solve problem for research. Based on research design have been stated before, this research is quantitative research where we are using SPSS software version 18.0 to run all the data. Type of statistics for this research is descriptive analysis where it analyzes mean & standard deviation (interval & ratio scale) and frequency (nominal & ordinal scale).
We also used bivariate descriptive statistic which including Pearson Product Moment Correlations test. Bivariate analysis is to examine the relationship or association between two pairs of variables (X and Y).
Pearson Product Moment Correlation to measure of the linear relationship between two or more variables to indicates the strength or magnitude of the relation and the direction (positive or negative) of the relationship.
RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The purpose of this research is to study the relationship between employee`s satisfaction with the quality of on-site child care center and employee turnover intention.
The specific objectives of this study are:
I. To determine on-site child care center provided by organization.
II. To describe the level of satisfaction with quality of on-site child care center and turnover intention.
III. To determine the relationship between employees’ satisfaction with the quality of on-site child care center and employees’ turnover intention. IV. To explain the challenges faced by organizations providing on-site child care center.
Based from the table 1, it show that total of respondent is 20 people of parents who are sent their children to the Ayu Manja Solehah Child Care Center which are 16.7% of them is male and 70.4% is female. Mostly, average age of respondent is 31 years below with the highest percentage of 48.1%. It followed by 16.7% where the age of respondent between 32-38 and respondent who are ages 39 years and above have the percentage of 11.1%. The mean of age is 31.83 and standard deviation is 5.48.
Next, majority of respondent are consist of parent who are married with 85.2 % and their race is Malay where the percentage is 87%. The highest level of education from the respondent is SPM/MCE/ O-Level with percentage of 38.9%. Second highest is diploma with percentage of 20.4%. Next, the percentage of parent who is level of education of bachelor degree is 14.8%. Then the percentage of 5.6% is parents who are level in STPM/HSC/A – Level. But there is a same percentage between parent who are their level of education Phd/Master Degree and PMR/SRP where the percentage is 3.7%. And the lowest of percentage is 1.9% for respondent who are level in others.
The highest percentage of total household income per month is 29.6% where the amount is below than RM1,000 until RM2,500. Next is 24.1% with the amount more than RM2,500 until RM 4,500. It follow with amount of RM 1,000 below with the percentage of 18.5%. Next the percentage is 11.1% where the amount is below than RM4,500 until RM6,500. And the lowest of total household income per month is below than RM 6,500 with the percentage of 3.7%.
The highest level of employment status is others with percentage of 38.9%. It follow with executive where the percentage is 13%. But there is same percentages between parent who are their status are supervisor and non-management where the percentage is 11.1%. And the lowest of percentage is 3.7% for respondent who are manager in that organization. The mean for years of services is 9.13 and the standard deviation is 3.49.
The highest percentage for years of service group category is 25.9% where the years between 6 until 9. There is a same percentage of 20.4% where the group between 3 until 6 years and 10 until 13 years. The lowest percentage is 16.7% for the years of group between 13 until 16 years. The mean of number children sent to the child care center is 1.51 and the standard deviation is 0.63. The mean for range of time parents used child care center is 2.17 and the standard deviation is 1.03. and the mean for child care fee is 154.13 and the standard deviation is 46.69 .