Occupation, Health and Function Assignment
This assignment will discuss the impact of multiple sclerosis on the person and what problems they may encounter. The assignment will then go on to describe the dysfunctions on a person’s life and how certain activities promote health and wellbeing for the needs of the individual.
Multiple Sclerosis, or MS, is a chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Though the disease only targets the brain and spinal cord, the effects on these areas cause symptoms to develop throughout the entire body. It involves the ongoing destruction of the Myelin sheaths around the neurons in the brain and spinal cord (Tipping.L, 2002).
Multiple Sclerosis is a disease of the white matter tissue. The white matter is made up of nerve fibers which are responsible for transmitting communication signals within the central nervous system and the nerves which supply the rest of the body. The transmission of impulses by neurons and signals sent throughout the central nervous system get disrupted with the disease. The word ‘multiple scleroses’ literally mean many scars and for a great number of patients this is what the disease entails (Louis & Rosner, 2008).
Multiple Sclerosis is not fatal but can have a deliberating impact on a person’s life. Consequently people with Multiple Sclerosis and their informal caregivers must often manage the consequences of this unpredictable disease for 40 years or more. The consequences for people with Multiple Sclerosis include difficulties in maintaining employment; participating in social, recreational and leisure activities; performing household maintenance and self care (Burks and Johnson 2000).
The Inside Disease Multiple Sclerosis affects 350, 000 people around the United States. Judy Rhamini, a forty- six-year-old mother of two, was diagnosed with the crippling disease in 1988. In late 1997, her attacks had become so devastating that one of them left her arms and legs temporarily paralyzed. To combat the attacks, Mrs. Rhamini began a four- hour daily regimen of intravenous steroids. ...
The symptoms and progression may vary widely and it is hard to predict how an individual’s dysfunction will be affected.
Some early symptoms include tiredness, clumsiness and tingling sensations. The disease usually takes years to progress and the person can experience periods of remission where symptoms may disappear followed by relapses.
During stages of Multiple Sclerosis, symptoms can include general weakness, fatigue, bowel and bladder problems, sexual problems and depression.
Spasticity is a physiological factor related to general weakness and fatigue of the person. The muscles contract and relax at the same time which causes stiffness in the muscles, this takes up a lot of energy for the person and carrying out daily activities could cause the person to become less functional than before the onset of their symptoms. While fatigue is the single most common complaint of patients, it is also the one symptom to which others may be least sympathetic as the person may look healthy. In the absence of other symptoms, others can easily regard it as laziness; this can affect the person’s self esteem and wellbeing. The person may require a wheelchair or electric scooter if they wish to function outside the home with their daily activities; this will aid the person to keep as much independence in their social and cultural aspects of life (Crepeau. E, 2003).
Sexual difficulties are also related to Multiple Sclerosis, they may be either physical or psychological. These can include sex drive impaired, sensations in the genitals and loss of sexual interest. If sexual dysfunction is a persistent problem, sexual counseling can help couples to overcome this.
‘A women might choose to have a baby sooner, while she knows her Multiple Sclerosis is more likely to remain in a mild stage and she is better equipped to deal with a toddler. Another person might choose not to have children at all’ (Rosner & Ross, 2008).
Schizophrenia What You Need to Know Schizophrenia is a serious disorder which affects how a person thinks, feels and acts. Someone with schizophrenia may have difficulty distinguishing between what is real and what is imaginary; may be unresponsive or withdrawn; and may have difficulty expressing normal emotions in social situations. Contrary to public perception, schizophrenia is not split ...
Understanding and patience in a relationship is important, keeping the communication channels open, helps towards social and cultural aspects of each other’s wellbeing.
Another physiological factor relating to this diagnosis is a bowel and bladder weakness. A person, who may experience this, will urinate a lot more than usual and incontinence often occurs. The bowel can also be affected with the condition and this often results in constipation, diarrhea and incontinence ( Atchison.B.J & Dirette, 2007).
The dysfunction of personal body functions can cause extreme embarrassment which prevents the person engaging in outdoor activities for the concern of body odour and not having public amenities close by to them. A bowel and bladder problem can discourage the person from sexual activities due to psychological problems associated with their condition.
A clear psychological factor related to Multiple Sclerosis is depression. It is a frequent reaction because of the extreme problems associated with the condition. Depression can be helped in a holistic way using various relaxation programmes and counseling Social groups are beneficial to the individual, especially if there are support groups for the person’s particular diagnosis, as it aids discussion about the same condition and supporting each other at the same time. A client centered programme of exercise for some individuals can be beneficial to the health and wellbeing of the person. Although there are benefits of using holistic treatments, intervention for depression is usually through the medical model of prescribed medication in the form of antidepressants.
Depression can also have psychological factors relating to short term memory loss. This is also known as cognitive and emotional dysfunction; it involves memory, reasoning and verbal fluency. However people with Multiple Sclerosis quite often forget information short term but can remember incidences which have happened a long time ago.
If memory loss is a constant problem with the person, there are certain ‘Mnemonic exercises that are used to help, or more recently Memory clinics for memory loss intervention. This and can be delivered by a speech therapist or Occupational therapist (Edwards.J.P, 2005).
The consequences for people with Multiple Sclerosis include difficulties in maintaining employment; participating in social, recreational and leisure activities; and performing household maintenance and self-care tasks related to health and disease management (Burks and Johnson 2000).
Well I believe that all six health elements are around our world daily. Because we all have physical health to keep the well being of the healthy balance for our mind and body. The way we treat our body reflects the wellness that our body can obtain. That up to you do you want to live a healthy life or not. Its many ways to keep the physical fitness so that our body can be healthy. Exercises and ...
However there are certain identifying leisure activities that can be used to promote health and wellbeing for a person with Multiple Sclerosis, depending on the person’s state of health at the time. The suitability of leisure activities needs to be purposeful and provide structure and meaning for the activity to be client-centered.
Swimming has many health benefits to promote a person’s function; this includes physical, psychological, social and cultural aspects of health and wellbeing. Hydrotherapy has the same benefits as swimming but the structure of the pool is different due to size and temperature of the pool. It differs from swimming because it involves special exercises and builds up the stamina of the entire body. This activity takes place in a warm-water pool, usually within a hospital or health and rehabilitation centre.
Hydrotherapy is the use of water in the treatment of a range of conditions, including Multiple Sclerosis, the warm water temperature, allows the muscles to relax and eases general weakness, fatigue and helps to restore function in the body.
This activity would not be suitable for a person who has a bladder or bowel incontinence due to hygiene reasons within the pool.
All personal attributes are essential in the completion of this activity including physical, cognitive, psychological and interpersonal, all of which contribute to the health and wellbeing of the person. The suitability of the Hydrotherapy session needs to meet the needs of the user and a risk assessment for the person would need to be complete before the intervention commences.
The person does not have to be able to swim to have hydrotherapy, as the pools are quite shallow so the person can exercise well within their depth. Buoyancy aids could be used to support the person in the water, including a rail around the edge of the pool for extra support. There should be a carer, fully trained Life Guard or therapist in and also out of the water for therapy and safety reasons. To get into the pool the person would need to climb down a few steps, for those who cannot manage, a mechanical hoist should be in place to lower the person into the water. Disabled changing facilities would be required, due to the nature of the people using the pool.
Introduction Multiple Sclerosis Stephanie **** Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, often disabling disease that randomly attacks the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). The progress, severity and specific symptoms of the disease can not be predicted; symptoms may range from tingling and numbness to paralysis and blindness. MS is a devastating disease because people live with its ...
In order for the person to access the hydrotherapy session, the building should be safe and easy accessible. Suitable car parking to the facilities would also be needed especially if disabled parking is required.
Gardening is a physical activity; this can increase a person’s overall fitness which will improve Physical Health and wellbeing in a person with Multiple Sclerosis. It may require little or strenuous actions dependent on the participation from the person.
This activity is appropriate for any age or gender. The minimal skills required, are a range of movement in the upper body, some hand eye co-ordination and posture whether standing or sitting for a length of time. Gardening is an activity that can be done individually, or as a social activity. Safety is paramount when gardening using tools such as spades and forks, therefore supervision may be required.
Posture and muscle strength in the upper body and a range of movements are necessary for lifting, carrying and pouring e.g. watering can. Hand-eye and foot-eye coordination is needed for using a spade, trowel or fork. Adaption to the tools used can be applied if necessary.
Cardiovascular fitness, endurance levels, may increase although coordination is required for removing and replacing plants and using the tools.
From a psychological point of view, gardening is known to relieve stress and tension from around the body, which promotes self-esteem for the person with Multiple Sclerosis. This in turn improves concentration, long term memory health and wellbeing.
The activity may relate to a therapeutic leisure activity. It can be used for therapeutic gain although, horticulture is recognised by some as a therapy in its own right. This may be due to the diversity of the many activities involved from design to growing and harvesting. However if the activity is not meaningful and purposeful to those carrying it out it cannot be deemed therapeutic.
Activity grading means manipulating the factors required for the performance of a task or an activity in stages so that the task becomes progressively more difficult or easier to carry out. An activity can be graded to increase or reduce social, emotional, cognitive, perceptual or physical demands (Creek, J, 2003).
In her 1962 Eleanor Clarke Slagle address entitled, “Occupational Therapy Can Be One Of The Great Ideas of 20th Century Medicine” Mary Reilly (1962) challenges her fellow colleagues to critically define Occupational Therapy’s value within the medical field. She initiates this critique by first asking the provocative question, “Is Occupational Therapy a sufficiently vital and unique service for ...
Depending on the person’s ability, a range of extended movements can be applied with regards to body posture, range of movement and balance. Changes to resistance can be made to alleviate strain on the muscles. Endurance for the length of time that the activity being performed can be increased or decreased.
If dexterity and Co-ordination cause a dysfunction within the performance of the gross motor skills, they can be replaced with a fine motor activity. Mobility can cause areas of dysfunction, if the person is having difficulties with an activity standing up, then an alternative, where the person could continue sitting down would be most appropriate to alleviate any pain and frustration caused.
Writing can be a therapeutic occupation, as long as it is seen as a meaningful and purposeful activity to the person performing it; however this can be adapted in many ways to meet the needs of the individual. A basic simple analysis of this is what, why, where, when, how who (Tipping, L, 2006).
It links to other reading and writing activities, it is rather a complex activity, as it requires physical, cognitive and psychological components.
Fine motor skills are needed to hold the pen / pencil in an appropriate position. Good balance; posture and strength are required to be able to write for any length of time. Concentration is also needed to recall any information that is to be written down.
Writing is an occupation classified by self-care, productivity and leisure. Writing can aid with a therapeutic gain, it gives the opportunity of developing physical aspects e.g. coordination regarding hand-eye movements etc. Cognitively it may help improve reading and writing skills. It also helps psychologically, for example, through expression of thoughts and feelings. It can also have a positive effect on reducing depression and feelings of anxiety through ways to express the person’s thoughts and feelings.
Multiple Sclerosis can interrupt a person’s wishes to write effectively, it is therefore necessary to make some adaptations in accordance with the needs of an individual. There are many writing tools on the market that could be used for a writing activity such as gel pens, felt pens and finger supports that slide onto a pen or pencil in order to grip more easily. This kind of adaptation helps certain people, especially if they can hold a pen effectively but cannot apply enough pressure. If this is not the case, there are many charitable organisations that may assist with assessment and provide the person with a computer along with modifications and software. If a person cannot physically control a computer with certain adaptations, voice recognition software could be more appropriate.
Multiple Sclerosis, MS for short, effects approximately 5 in 10, 000 people, and my step-mom Kathy happens to be one of the unlucky few (Roger 5). MS is a disease that strikes the central nervous system, which consists of the brain and spinal chord. These two organs control the movement and function of the entire body. Inside the body of a person with MS the tube that sends signals throughout the ...
Many studies reinforce the need for clients and therapists to work together at defining, clarifying and achieving goals (Hagedorn, 2006).
Creek states that negotiation can only start once a relationship has been formed with the client and when listening and communicating with each other is comfortable. Occupational therapists need to use their clinical reasoning skills to evaluate performance and match skills with potential to achieve goals (Creek.J 1997).
Based on the evidence available, it is clear that Multiple Sclerosis and its impact on a person can be overwhelming. The person will face the likelihood of reduced physical function and of disability with consequent disruptions in education, employment, sexual and family functioning, friendships and activities of daily living. Multiple Sclerosis can have a considerable impact on the individual’s sense of self, especially if they can no longer perform previously valued activities (Pakinham.K.I, 2007).
Unpleasant side effects from medication may also occur. Mood disorders such as depression and anxiety are common in people with Multiple Sclerosis and are often a result of finding it difficult to adjust to and cope with having the disorder. Cognitive functioning (the mental processes of memory, concentration, reasoning and judgement) can also be affected. Therefore a diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis can have psychological consequences (Gruenewald .D.A 2004).
The person’s quality of life, mood, cognitive functioning and disability, needs to be assessed regularly, also pain management, fatigue, health related services and treatments should be monitored.
In Britain a neurologist who makes the diagnosis may retain care of the individual or refer him / her to a rehabilitation specialist. This will depend on the procedures in place in each health care trust and should be explained to the individual.
Many health care trusts provide a Multi Disciplinary team who are able to support the individual and the family once the consultant has explained the diagnosis. The team can develop close relationships with their local Multiple Sclerosis support society. These provide a range of services that can provide treatment, respite care, the provision of equipment, group meetings, information and support to people with Multiple Sclerosis their carers and professionals, this contributes to the health and wellbeing of the person who has been diagnosed and all persons involved in the care plan (Silcox. L, 2003).
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