This topic will give you the overview of a research report and an example of a research report. After completing this topic, you should be able to explain the chapter contents of: (a) Research Problem; (b) Review of the Literature; (c) Research Method; (d) Research Findings; and (e) Conclusions (Figure 2. 1).

Figure 2. 1: Topic Contents 2. 2 EXAMPLE OF A RESEARCH REPORT “THE EFFECTS OF PREREQUISITE MATHEMATICS ABILITY, teaching method AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS ON MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT” CHAPTER 1 RESEARCH PROBLEM 1. 1 Introduction

State the purpose of research and explain the brief contents/subtopics of section/ chapter. The purpose of this research was to determine whether prerequisite mathematics ability, teaching method and English language skills affect mathematics achievement. This chapter will explain the background of research, statement of the research problem, purpose of research, importance of research, limitations of research, definition of terms, and summary. 1. 2Background of Research Explain the motivation for carrying out this research in terms of theoretical issues or practical problems.

Lately, mathematics achievement of most students in both the primary and secondary schools is deteriorating. The teaching of mathematics in English does affect mathematics learning for some students, but it creates significant problems for others. Schools had tried to solve some of these problems, but still could not improve mathematics achievement of these students. 1. 3 Statement of Research Problem Explain the factors/variables to be included in this research, show the conceptual/theoretical framework of research, and state the research problem.

### The Essay on Mathematics: Problem Solving and Ideal Math Classroom

We have different reasons why we hate or like math. As of these days, 70% of the students hate math and the remaining 30% is the one who likes math. Students say they hate math for some reasons, firstly simply because they don’t understand it and they just don’t like numbers. It’s like when they see numbers their life is starting to tear down. Secondly is they are afraid to take risk on answering ...

The literature on teaching and learning mathematics indicated that prerequisite mathematics ability is necessary for students to understand any new mathematics content. Beside prerequisite mathematics, most of past research showed that proper teaching mathematics can improve students’ performance in mathematics. Lately, research on mathematics learning discovered that English language skills facilitate mathematics learning. The theoretical framework of the research is given in Figure 1. 1.

This research attempted to determine whether prerequisite mathematics ability, English language skills, and teaching method affect mathematics achievement. Figure 1. 1 Theoretical Framework of the Research 1. 4Purpose of Research Explain the purpose of research, research objectives, research questions and research hypotheses (if any).

The purpose of this research was to determine whether prerequisite mathematics ability, teaching method and English language skills affect mathematics achievement. The objectives of this research were: 1. 4. 1 Research Objectives

This research was carried out with the following objectives: (a) To determine the effect of prerequisite mathematics ability on mathematics achievement. (b) To determine the effect of teaching method on mathematics achievement. (c) To determine the effect of English language skills on mathematics achievement. 1. 4. 2 Research Questions This research was carried out to answer the following research questions: (a) What is the effect of prerequisite mathematics ability on mathematics achievement? (b) What is the effect of teaching method on mathematics achievement?

(c) What is the effect of English language skills on mathematics achievement? 1. 4. 3 Research Hypotheses The following null hypotheses were formulated to answer the research questions: (a) There is no difference in mathematics achievement between students with low and high prerequisite mathematics abilities. (b) There is no difference in mathematics achievement between students who are taught using direct instruction and cooperative learning. (c) There is no difference in mathematics achievement between students with low and high English language skills. 1.5Importance of Research Explain the importance of research findings in terms of theory confirmation/building or their implications to practitioners. The findings of this research hopefully will create awareness among school administrators and mathematics teachers of the necessity to prepare students with English language skills and prerequisite mathematics knowledge before teaching new mathematics content. The findings also will help mathematics teachers to choose appropriate mathematics teaching method to improve students’ mathematics achievement. 1. 6Limitations of Research

### The Term Paper on Adapting Communicative Language Teaching Approach to China’s Context

1. Introduction With the development of market economy, China is accelerating its steps to join the world family in commerce and cultural partnership. With the recent accession to the WTO, the long-awaited Olympic Games in Beijing, China has made learning English a national priority. English, with its unique status, has been taught in China for more than 100 years. Today, English is becoming more ...

Explain the limitations of this research in terms of population, sample, instruments, data analyses or other related problems to the research. This research was carried out in two secondary schools in Petaling Jaya area with a sample of 120 students. The prerequisite mathematics ability, teaching method and English language skills were classified into only two categories each. The instruments were limited to prerequisite mathematics test, English language test, and mathematics post-test. Interaction effects of prerequisite mathematics ability and English language skills with teaching method were not investigated in this research.

1. 7Definition of Terms Give the constitutive (conceptual) and operational (measurement) definitions of the terms/variables used in the research. The followings were the key terms used in this research and their constitutive and operational definitions: (a) Mathematics achievement Mathematics achievement can be defined as the ability of a person to solve mathematical problems at a difficulty level that is appropriate to the person. In this research, mathematics achievement was measured using a mathematics post-test that covered the syllabus on area of triangle,rectangle, and circle. (b) Prerequisite mathematics ability …………………….. 1. 8Summary Give a summary of important aspects explained in this section/chapter. This research was carried out to improve students’ mathematics achievement. The purpose of this research was to determine whether prerequisite mathematics ability, teaching method and English language skills affect mathematics achievement. The research, which was conducted in two secondary schools in Petaling Jaya area, used teacher-made tests to collect the required research data. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE RREVIEW

### The Research paper on Calculators In Mathematics Students Technology Education

... to students in the world of mathematics. Calculators are already a much part of the emerging requirements of math instruction. And ... being. Take advantage and make yourself more capable of achievements to may be impossible without calculators. Works Cited Texas ... Research Paper Calculators are a way of doing mathematical equations when used correctly. They are also a useful tool in learning mathematics. ...

2. 1 Introduction Explain the brief contents of section/chapter. This chapter presents the Literature Review which is divided into Related Literature and Related Research. The Related Literature explains prerequisite mathematics, language skills, direct instruction and cooperative learning. The Related Research presents some research on the effects of prerequisite mathematics ability, language skills and teaching method on mathematics achievement. 2. 2 Related Literature Explain concepts, theories, principles or models that are related to the research problem.

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of prerequisite mathematics ability, teaching method and English language skills on mathematics achievement. This section will explain the two teaching methods that were used in this research, namely, direct instruction and cooperative learning; and also the roles of prerequisite knowledge and language skills in teaching and learning. 2. 2. 1 Direct Instruction Slavin (2006) defined “direct instruction” as “an approach to teaching in which lessons are goal-oriented and structured by the teacher”.

The teacher transmits information directly to students by structuring class time so that the students achieve the clearly stated objectives as efficient as possible. It is efficient for teaching a well-defined body of knowledge or skills such as mathematics. Direct Instruction comprises of the following seven (7) steps of activities: (a) State Learning Objectives and Orient Students to Lesson; (b) Review Prerequisites; (c) Present New Materials; (d) Conduct Learning Probes; (e) Provide Independent Practice; (f) Assess Performance and Provide Feedback; and (g) Provide Distributed Practice and Review.

2. 2. 2 cooperative learning Slavin (2006) defined “cooperative learning” as “instructional methods in which students work together in small groups to help each other learn”. The students are prepared with specific skills that will help them work better in a group. These skills include active listening, giving clear explanations, avoiding negative comments, etc. An effective cooperative learning model is called Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD).

### The Essay on Foreign Language Instruction Should Begin In Kindergarten

For years it was thought that learning foreign language is getting more and more important because of the globalization. In order to acquire a new language as soon as possible, amounts of parents would like to let their children begin to learn new languages in kindergarten. There are many positive effects if people learn foreign language when they are young children. Even though adults have ...

STAD comprises of the following four (4) steps of activities: (a) Teach – the teacher present the lesson; (b) Team Study – students work on worksheets in their teams to master the material; (c) Test – students take individual tests; and (d) Team Recognition – team scores are computed based on team members’ improvement scores and class newsletter recognizes high-scoring teams. 2. 3 Related Research Explain and comment about previous research/ studies that are related to the research problem in terms of population, sample, instruments, analyses, findings and limitations.

Based on the research framework, this section will present the previous research/ studies related to the effects of prerequisite mathematics ability, teaching method and English language skills on mathematics achievement. Specifically, this section will present the research on direct instruction (Systematic Instruction) and cooperative learning (Student Teams-Achievement Divisions – STAD).

2. 3. 1 Research on Direct Instruction The Systematic Instruction (SI) is one form/model of Direct Instruction.

SI is a comprehensive Direct Instruction approach with a high degree of structure. Studies on the evaluation of nine programmes using Direct Instruction were carried out (in Slavin, 2006).

DISTAR and Behaviour Analysis, the two highly structured Direct Instruction programmes, were found most successful in improving students’ reading and mathematics achievement. Of the nine programmes, only DISTAR was successful in improving low-achieving disadvantaged students close to the national average achievement. DISTAR and Behaviour Analysis students were also highest in self-esteem.

About 60% of DISTAR students graduated from high school, compared to only 38% of other students in the same school. 2. 3. 2 Research on Cooperative Learning Slavin (1986) had done a research on Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD).

### The Term Paper on English Language Teaching

This paper aims to highlight the importance of teaching sociolinguistic competence to ESL learners in Malaysian schools. Sociolinguistic competence is the knowledge of socio cultural rules of language and of discourse. This type of competence requires an understanding of the socio context in which language is used. It is proposed that carefully designed language activities be carried out by ...

The research found that students learn substantially more in cooperative learning than in traditional/direct instruction, if two conditions are made. First, there must be some reward or recognition given to students, such as certificates. Second, each group must make sure that all of their members are learning, not just the good ones.

When these conditions are met, cooperative learning is effective in grades 2 through 12, in all subjects and in many types of schools. Other than academic achievement, cooperative learning had positive effect on race relations, self-esteem, and attitudes toward school (Slavin, 1990).

2. 4 Summary Give a summary of important aspects explained in this section/chapter. This chapter presented the Literature Review for this research. The Related Literature discussed about direct instruction, cooperative learning, and the roles of prerequisite knowledge and skills and language skills in teaching and learning.

The Related Research discussed about the research on direct instruction, namely, Systematic Instruction, and cooperative learning, namely, Student Teams-Achievement Divisions. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHOD 3. 1 Introduction Introduction Explain the brief contents of section/chapter. This chapter presents the Research Method which is divided into Research Design, Population and Sample, Research Instruments, Procedure for Data Collection, Procedure for Data Analyses, Pilot Study, and Summary.

This research used experimental design to investigate the effects of prerequisite mathematics ability, English language skills, and teaching method on mathematics achievement. 3. 2 Research Design A factorial experimental design was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables; namely, prerequisite mathematics ability, English language skills, and teaching method; on the dependent variable of mathematics achievement. This section will explain the factorial design with each of the independent variable having two levels.

The two levels of prerequisite mathematics ability were low and high; the two levels of English language skills were low and high; and the two levels of teaching method were direct instruction and cooperative learning. A (2x2x2) factorial design was used in this research with a total of eight groups/cells. The factorial design is shown in Table 3. 1. Table 3. 1: (2x2x2) Factorial Design on Mathematics Achievement Prerequisite Mathematics Ability Low High English Language Skills: Low Direct Instruction Direct Instruction English Language Skills: High Direct Instruction Direct Instruction

### The Review on English Language problems experienced by overseas students in Australia

International education is of major significance to Australia. The number of oversees students enrolled in Australian higher education institutions rose from 24,998 to 210,397 between 1990 and 2003. Most of the students come from countries where English is learnt as a foreign language. It is noted that in Australia, education is the third largest export service after tourism and transport, ...

Prerequisite Mathematics Ability Low High English Language Skills: Low Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning English Language Skills: High Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning 3. 3 Population and Sample Explain the scope/limitation of research in terms of population and sample & how respondents are selected. This was a part of an action research planned for a public secondary school in Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. The research population comprised of all the Form 4 students in the school for the school year of 2009. A total of 240 Form 4 students were randomly selected as research sample.

Other population and sample were not considered in this research, since it was an action research for the school. 3. 4 Research Instruments Explain research instruments to be used and how they are developed/ constructed. There were four instruments used in this research, namely: (a) Backgrounds Questionnaire to collect data on backgrounds of respondents; (b) Prerequisite Mathematics Pretest to measure students’ prerequisite mathematics ability; (c) English Language Pretest to measure students’ English language skills; and (d) Mathematics Posttest to measure students’ mathematics achievement.

The four research instruments were developed by two mathematics teachers and two English Language teachers from the school. The Backgrounds Questionnaire was focused on students’ gender, ethnic, stream, and PMR Mathematics grade. The Mathematics Pretest and Posttest were developed based on the topic of Probability and Statistics, while the English Language Pretest was developed based on Form 4 syllabus. 3. 5 Procedure for Data Collection

Explain step-by-step of the procedure for data collection from obtaining the permission to do research to how the data were collected. The 240 Form 4 students were called to meet the School Principal and researchers at the school’s hall. They were briefed about the research and were given the Backgrounds Questionnaire, Prerequisite Mathematics Pretest, and English Language Pretest. After the results of the Prerequisite Mathematics Pretest and English Language Pretest were obtained, the students were classified into four groups of 60 students each, namely: (a) studentswith “low” Prerequisite Mathematics scores and “low” in English Language scores; (b) students with “low” Prerequisite Mathematics scores and “high” in English Language scores; (c) students with “high” Prerequisite Mathematics scores and “low” in English Language scores; and (d) students with “high” Prerequisite Mathematics scores and “high” in English Language scores. Each of the four groups of students was later assigned randomly to two groups of 30 students each to form a total of eight groups.

One mathematics teacher was trained on how to teach mathematics using Direct Instruction, and another mathematics teacher was trained to teach mathematics using Cooperative Learning. After the training, one of the mathematics teachers taught four of groups of students on the topic of Probability and Statistics for a period of three weeks using Direct Instruction. The other four groups of students were taught by the other mathematics teacher on the topic of Probability and Statistics also for a period of three weeks using Cooperative Learning.

At the end of three weeks, all students were given the Mathematics Posttest. 3. 6 Procedure for Data Analyses Explain step-by-step of the procedure for data analyses from marking the test(s) to how the data were analyzed to answer each research question. One English language teacher was asked to mark the English Language Pretest answer scripts, one mathematics teacher was asked to mark the Prerequisite Mathematics Pretest answer scripts, and another mathematics teacher was asked to mark the Mathematics Posttest answer scripts, based on the marking schemes provided by the researcher.

The backgrounds information of the students and their Prerequisite Mathematics Pretest scores, English Language Pretest scores, and Mathematics Posttest scores were entered into a computer file for analyses. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the research data. Frequencies and percentages were used to analyze the backgrounds of students who participated in the research. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test the following null hypotheses on the main effects of the independent variables investigated at 0. 05 level of significant.

The following null hypotheses were formulated to answer the research questions: (a) There is no difference in mathematics achievement between students with low and high prerequisite mathematics abilities. (b) There is no difference in mathematics achievement between students who are taught using lecture method and cooperative method. (c) There is no difference in mathematics achievement between students with low and high English language skills. 3. 7 Pilot Study 4 Explain how you carried out the pilot study and improvements you made on your research after the pilot study.

A pilot study for the research was carried out in the same school when the two mathematics teachers were given the training on how to teach mathematics using Direct Instruction and Cooperative Learning. A small sample of 20 students was used in the pilot study, whereby the students were given the Backgrounds Questionnaire, English Language Pretest, Prerequisite Mathematics Pretest, and Mathematics Posttest. The students were interviewed by the researcher on their understanding of the Questionnaire, Pretests, and Posttest.

The researcher had refined the Questionnaire, and a new set of equivalent English Language Pretest, Prerequisite Mathematics Pretest, and Mathematics Posttest were developed by the same two mathematics teachers and two English Language teachers based on the comments from students. 3. 8 Summary Give a summary of important aspects explained in this section/chapter. This chapter presented the Research Method that was focused on the Research Design, Population and Sample, Research Instruments, Procedure for Data Collection, Procedure for Data Analyses and Pilot Study.

The research was carried out on 240 Form 4 students from a public secondary school in Petaling Jaya, Selangor. A Backgrounds Questionnaire, an English Language Pretest, a Prerequisite Mathematics Pretest, and a Mathematics Posttest were used as research instruments. A pilot study was carried out at the same school and the instruments were refined based on students’ comments. Descriptive statistics were used to explain the backgrounds of respondents, while ANOVA was used to test the null hypotheses of the research. CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH FINDINGS 4. 1 Introduction

Explain the brief contents of section/chapter. This chapter presents the Research Findings which is divided into the Backgrounds of Respondents and the Results of Data Analyses and Research Findings. The Backgrounds of Respondents discuss the composition of respondents by gender and ethnic. The Results of Data Analyses and Research Findings explain the results of Analysis of Variance on Mathematics Achievement and the hypothesis tests on the effects of Prerequisite Mathematics, Teaching Method, and English Language Skills on Mathematics Achievement. 4.

Backgrounds of Respondents Explain the backgrounds of the research respondents, e. g. their gender, age, family income, etc. This research was carried out at a public secondary school in Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 240 Form 4 students were randomly selected as research sample. These students were assigned to four groups based on the results of Prerequisite Mathematics Pretest and English Language Skills Pretest. The background of respondents in terms of gender, ethnic, mean score and standard deviation (SD) of Prerequisite Mathematics, and mean score and standard deviation (SD) of English Language Skills are given in Table 4. 1. The respondents comprised of 120 male students (50%), 120 female students (50%); which were made up of 120 Malay students (50%), 96 Chinese students (40%), and 24 Indian students (10%).

In terms of Prerequisite Mathematics and English Language Skills, Group 1 (Low Math & English) comprised of 60 students with mean of 31. 8% in Prerequisite Mathematics and 42. 6% in English Language Skills. Group 2 (Low Math & High English) comprised of 60 students with mean of 32. 1% in Prerequisite Mathematics and 72.