All of these are false – and true, or at least a nugget of truth is in them. In order for us to understand their factual basis, we must first make some distinctions, because not all bilinguals are the same! Factors or dimensions in bilingualism and SLA: * Sequential vs. Simultaneous Acquisition * Compound vs. Coordinate Input * Dominant vs. Balanced Bilingualism * Contextualized vs. Decontextualized language use for L1 and L2 Truth behind the myths Linguistic Confusion – this occurs only for simultaneous acquisition, and only for a few months early in the life of a child.
It is not a large degree of confusion, and it quickly is overcome (and some researchers propose that it is never really confusing at any stage of acquisition).
L1 takes away L2 – this is only true in the sense that INPUT MATTERS, and the amount of input of L2 is important – how much L1 is not important. However, the better foundation of L1, the easier time people have getting into L2, at least in the early stages of L2 acquisition in terms of oral language. And literacy skills transfer even more easily, so literacy acquisition in L1 clearly benefits literacy acquisition in L2.
Younger is better – the truth is that older is faster, but younger goes further in acquisition; in other words, younger is slower but farther, older is faster but not as far, in terms of fully acquiring a language in a “native-like” productive way. Levels of Second language proficiency BICS and CALP ( http://www. iteachilearn. com/cummins/bicscalp. html ) Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) is a level of second language proficiency that can be acquired within 1-2 years of immersion or exposure. “It is the day-to-day language needed to interact socially with other people.
“The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.” —Alvin Toffler Introduction Constant innovation and rebuilding, the so-called “economic progress” and globalization all have led to the emergence of a projected 11 million unrecognized immigrants currently residing in the United States of America. These people have ...
English language learners (ELLs) employ BIC skills when they are on the playground, in the lunch room, on the school bus, at parties, playing sports and talking on the telephone. Social interactions are usually context embedded. They occur in a meaningful social context. They are not very demanding cognitively. The language required is not specialized. These language skills usually develop within six months to two years after arrival in the U. S. ” Judy Haynes, retrieved May 4, 2010, www. everythingESL. net
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP), on the other hand, is a level of second language proficiency that requires more specialized grammar, vocabulary, and language use – for literacy, reasoning, school work and academic conversations. It can take up to 5-7 years of immersion and exposure – 7-10 years if the child does not have previous experience in school or using their first language in academic/cognitive contexts and activities. ————————————————- Cognitive Balanced bilinguals, especially those using both languages for decontextualized language uses, have cognitive benefits: Earlier metalinguistic awareness * Earlier executive functions * Earlier creativity – divergent thinking Otherwise, Dominant bilinguals appear to have no advantage or disadvantage over monolinguals. Personality Different aspects of personality and worldview are clearly related to which language a bilingual is using at the time of testing or thinking Social The largest factors in successful SLA or bilingual acquisition include two dimensions: * Integrative vs. instrumental motivation on the part of the person * Stigmatized vs. preferential treatment on the part of the group/society Brain
On this essay we are going to expressly talk on promoting Academic Success for ESL Students and also understanding second language acquisition for school, I will take my time to explain Linguistic processes and discusses the linguistic processes of first and second language acquisition. First language acquisition is a complex, lifelong process. And I will also explain in detail the influential ...
Aphasia studies show us that Comprehension is separate from production Translation is separate from speaking/listening to spontaneous messages Recovery patterns in aphasia 50% parallel recovery (both languages return in a similar pattern) 25% selective recovery (only one-language returns) 25% “weird” recovery * differential (one language is impaired more than the other to begin with) * successive (one language returns completely before the other starts to return) * antagonistic (one language recovers, but at the expense of the other; alternation occurs from day to day or week to week)