sorry for this but had reallA community refers to a group of people living together with a common attachment to their place of residence. It is a place where people encounter one another ‘face to face’ (Maser, 1997).
It also refers to a partially delimited ‘territorial entity of indeterminate scale’ and also an ‘evocative idea, used to refer to a place or sense of calm, refuge and harmony’ (Johnston, 1985:61).
The concept Community development is the new paradigm of development that focuses on participatory methodologies and ensures the involvement of the community in the decision making process. It also encourages the use of practical and generalist skills, on locally derived revenues (Maser, 1997; Abott, 1995; Hawken, 1983).
It is also a process of organisation, facilitation and action that allow people to create a community in which they want to live through a conscious process of self-determination (Maser, 1997).
It also operates successfully within the specific environment where the government is open for community involvement in the decision-making process (Abott, 1995).
The term empowerment has many meanings and uses (Rappaport, 1961).
However, it is common to view empowerment as a process in which a person or community gives or gets power from another. The notion is that power originates outside the person or community, who gives or gets it from another. There is always another person or community that can become empowered. However, the key is for people to recognize and act upon the power or potential power that they already have (Checkoway, 1995).
Throughout earth, the life of an average person can change because of one day's events. Communities that had been established over numerous decades, can become a pile of rubble in a matter of hours and even minutes. The effect of a natural disaster can change a community forever. A natural disaster is anything that causes harm or damage from nature. Natural disasters can strike any part of the ...
Empowerment is also termed as gaining of strength, confidence and vision to work for positive changes (Eade, 1997).
Sustainability refers to the conservation of natural resources and a sense of obligation to future generations (Becker & Jahn, 1999).
It relates to the capacity of an organization or set of activities to become self-supporting (Eade & Williams, 1995).
Shepherd (1998) also notes that it is a means of looking after resources while maintaining present or existing activities.
3. Development theories and participatory approaches
Since the 1950s, a diversity of theoretical and empirical traditions has converged in the field of development approaches. Such convergence produced a rich analytical vocabulary, but also resulted in conceptual confusion (Waisbord, 2001).
The field has not experienced a linear evolution in which new approaches superseded and replaced previous ones. Instead, different theories and practices that had originated in different disciplines have existed and have been used simultaneously.
This part of the essay identifies the different types development theories, traces their origins, their practical applications, draws comparisons, and indicates strengths and weaknesses. It also analyzes the main understandings of participatory development approach and major tools of application.
3.1.The philosophical basis of traditional development theories
Different schools of traditional development theories have emerged in the past few decades and a range of views are reflected by different theorists. Some of the basic argument of traditional development theories including: Modernization, Marxist and dependency theories that will briefly elaborated on. First let us review the basic argument of modernization theory.
I would like to define the concept of modernity or modernization as a continuous change in the mindset (and life style) of a person, with regard to its social, legal, economic, political and technological environments. A person or a group of people (a society) to be modern refers to a process of development (or becoming mature / organized ) enabled through mass media. Where one turns from its ...
modernization theory emerged in the late fifties and early sixties (Evans & Stephens, 1988).
The theory stem from the ideas from Durkheim, Weber and Parsons who explained the transformation from traditional to modern societies in terms of population growth with its divisions of labour; personal motivation and the change of moral values and norms. According to modernization theorists, the first world industrial countries are modern and the third world countries are traditional. Development is only possible when “primitive” values and norms are replaced with modern ones (Evans & Stephes, 1988; Simpson, 1987).
Contact with the modern world, whether by trade or language, will therefore incorporate and transform the primitive culture, leading the way to development (Webster, 1984: 44-51).
The basic premise of modernization theory is that development is possible, and that in order to achieve it, developing nations should copy the Western European experience, which was characterized by a set of stages in which development took place (Coetzee, 2001; Evans & Stephens, 1988:742; Alvin, 1953).
There is also another theory of development viewed by Karl Marx, the well-known Marxist theorist.
Marx claims that “the country that is more developed industrially only shows, to the less developed, the image of its own future” (Marx, 1867: 8-9 in Evens & Stephens, 1988:743).
Marxist theory, like modernization theory, sees the role of the market as the solvent that would break down traditional cultures and would allow for development to take place (Evans & Stephens, 1988: 749).
As the shortcomings of both modernization and Marxist theory became more apparent, another school of thought known as dependency theory emerged to explain the weaknesses of the above theories.
The basic argument of dependency theory is that the reliance on the international market that led to the domination of transitional capital because of the unequal exchange between core and periphery, benefiting only the core (Evans & Stephens, 1988:749).
1. How does the Nursing Theory assist the practicing nurse in the delivery of care to patients? Explain your answer. Nursing theories are important to the lives of nurses because they help develop and understand further the nursing practice. These were formulated by the theorists because they believed that these will aid nurses in the holistic health care delivery and furthermore help in ...
Frank (1969) argued that the major causes for inequality are historical colonialism and western capitalism. Evans & Stephens (1988) noted that, in contrast with modernization theory, dependency theorists regard the state and its agents as active actors in the process of underdevelopment.
I argue that even though all of the above traditional development theories give us insight in to the notion of development; all of them fail to provide an all-encompassing explanation of the concept of development especially for developing countries. Having the above traditional development theories as a background, let us explore the fundamental theory of participatory development.
3.2. Theories of participatory approach/humanistic approach
According to Waishbord (2001) participatory theories criticized the modernization paradigm on the ground that it promoted a top-down ethnocentric and paternalistic view of development. They argued that the strategic model proposed a conception of development associated with a western vision of progress. The top-down approach of persuasion models implicitly assumed that the knowledge of governments and agencies was correct, and that indigenous populations went either ignorant or had incorrect beliefs (Cypher & Diethz, 1997; Weyman & Fussell, 1996).
Dissatisfaction with the above traditional development theories lead to a re-examination of the purpose of development towards a search for alternative conceptual explanations. A host of develoy important work so just dint had time to write an essay