Bolivia is located in the west-central part of South America and is the fifth largest country of the continent having an area about twice the size of Spain. Bolivia is landlocked bordering five countries; Brazil on the northeast, Paraguay to the southeast, Argentina on the south, and Chile and Peru on the west. The main physical feature of Bolivia is the Andes Mountains, which define the country’s three geographic zones. First is the Altiplano, or plateau region, which lies between the Cordillera Occidental (west) and the Cordillera Real (northeast).
On the northern end of the Altiplano lies the Lake Titicaca, the highest navigable body of water in the world. Secondly are the Yung as which form a transition zone between the peaks of the Andes and the Amazonian forest.
Lastly are the Lowlands which make up over two-thirds of the national territory; north and east of the Andes. Most of Bolivia’s important rivers are found in the northern lowlands all which eventually flow into the Amazon. (Box 234, 277, 314) The area of modern Bolivia was controlled by Spanish conquest in 1525. The territory of Bolivia, a part of the ancient empire of the Incas, was conquered in 1538 by the Spanish conquistador Hernando Pizarro. As Spanish royal authority weakened during the Napoleonic wars, judgment against colonial rule grew. Between 1808 and 1810, the Wars of Independence took place in Upper Peru which constituted efforts to achieve independence.
The revolt on May 25, 1809 was one of the first in Latin America. On July 16, 1809, Upper Peru proclaimed itself an independent state. The Battle of Ayacucho in 1824 was the final battle that effectively ended Spanish rule in Upper Peru. On August 6, 1825, Bolivia achieved independence from Spain after a struggle led by Simon Bolvar and Antonio Jos de Sucre To satisfy Bolvar’s reservations about the independence of Upper Peru, the new nation was named after him.
The Spanish Culture has many holidays. They celebrate a lot of different occasions throughout the year. Many of their holidays are celebrated in a different way then those celebrated in America. They celebrate some of the same holidays as us, but they also have a lot of different ones. They celebrate New Years on January 1st just like us, Mothers day on May 10th, and Christmas on December 25th. We ...
Five days after Bolivia declared its independence from Spain, on August 11 the newly independent nation was named Bolivia, after Simon Bolvar. (Country Study 15-16) The type of government run in Bolivia is a Democracy. The 1967 constitution, revised in 1994, provides for balanced executive, legislative, and judicial powers. Along with the three branches there are nine administrative departments each controlled by a governor. The Executive branch is headed by the President. The current president is Hugo Banner Suarez, elected in August 1997; the Vice President is Jorge Fernando Qui roga Ramirez.
The president and vice president are chosen through popular vote elections to a four-year term. The president appoints the cabinet. The Legislative branch is a bicameral National Congress, composed of a twenty-seven member Senate and a one hundred thirty member Chamber of Deputies. The Judicial branch is the Supreme Court composed of twelve members elected by congress and local courts. The national capital and seat of government and Congress is La Paz while Sucre is the legal capital and seat of judiciary. (Country Study 169, 174-5, 177) With its history of social controls and bouts of hyper-inflation, Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and least developed South American countries.
Bolivia experienced two major revolutions in economic policy during the second half of the twentieth century. However, Bolivia has experienced generally improving economic conditions since the late 80’s. In the late 1980 s, trade of the coca plant, used for cocaine, became a large-scale illegal activity in underground economy. These activities thrived, employing two-thirds of the work force, totaling more than the official international trade.
Early 90’s successes included the signing of a free trade agreement with Mexico. (Country Study 101-2) Agriculture plays an important role in the economy; Bolivia is the second most agricultural country in South America. Nearly half of the population is employed in the agricultural sector. Bolivia’s major products are soybeans, cotton, potatoes, corn, sugarcane, rice, wheat, coffee, beef, barley.
The most interesting question in linguistic is whether and how language affects the way we remember things and the way we perceive the world and this idea was first introduced by the influential linguists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf (Harley, 2008). Statements, attempting to illustrate that language is the medium by which one views the world, culture, reality and thought have aroused an ...
Tin has long been the country’s most important mineral. However, since the collapse of tin prices in the mid-1980 s, Bolivia has come to rely more on its other natural resources, which include deposits of natural gas, petroleum, tungsten, silver and gold. (Blair 171-2) The Spanish language became a part of the culture as a result of Spanish control before receiving independence in 1825. Spanish is the official language, yet only about half of the people speak it as their first language.
Spanish is spoken by many of the mestizos and Bolivians of European descent, but is not spoken by about 40% of the Native American population. The remainder speak Quechua, the language of the Inca, or Aymar, the pre-Inca language. Compound dialects of Spanish-Aymar and Spanish- Quechua are also widely spoken. (Blair 91-3) In 1961 the government gave up its right to mediate in church affairs; they proclaimed religious toleration and permitted the establishment of non-Roman Catholic churches. The Constitution of 1967 granted official status to the Roman Catholic Church and guaranteed the public exercise of all other religions. Religion was traditionally the domain of women, men felt no obligation to attend church or to practice their religion.
The Bolivian population is predominately Roman Catholic, the official religion. Other minorities include: Protestant, especially Evangelical Methodists, and Jewish. In 1980 s Mormons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, gained increasing followers. (Blair 105-6, 115) Body language is as significant as spoken language. Bolivians greet friends warmly; women kiss on each cheek while touching each arm and men either shake hands or give an abr azo; a type of hug followed by a series of pats on the shoulder and another handshake. It is common to see females of all ages walking arm in arm or hand in hand.
Eye contact is a must; avoiding another’s eyes is considered insulting. Ask before taking a picture of someone in Bolivia; people sometimes believe that you are capturing their spirit. Sometimes indigenous natives will ask for money when their picture is taken. Also be careful about taking photos in religious shrines. (Customs and Culture) The Bolivian diet consists mainly of a wide variety of potatoes and quinta which is a high protein grain. Bolivia’s food is dominated by meat dishes, accompanied by rice, potatoes and shredded lettuce.
One day his teachers came to his home and explained that he was not doing so well in school and therefore the English language needed to be enforced in the house (453). The teachers asked for his parents to try to speak English with Rodriguez and his siblings. Rodriquez explains how speaking Spanish at home was the family language and it made him feel a intimate and close with his family and it ...
The alcohol is strong and Bolivian drinking habits are lusty. In La Paz a favorite dish called fri case is made with pork and seasoned with yellow hot pepper. Sucre is famous for chorizo’s (sausage) and ckocko, a dish of chicken cooked in chica with raisins. A favorite dish of people in the tropics is loco, a rice soup made with chaque (beef jerky) or chicken, green bananas, eggs and served with y uca. Salt eas, a meat or chicken turnover, are another popular food of Bolivians eaten mainly in the altiplano and valley regions.
(Customs and Culture) Only a passport is required for entry into Bolivia. U. S. citizens do not need a visa for a one-month stay.
Business visa requires $50. 00 US fee and company letter explaining purpose of trip. U. S. citizens who are long-term visitors are encouraged to register at the U. S.
embassy upon arrival in a country. Registering with the embassy may help you to replace lost identity documents or help family members contact you in case of an emergency. (Fodor’s 141) La Paz, the highest capital city in the world is a great attraction for travelers. La Paz has a number of museums, including The Museo de Metals Precios os Pre- Columbines. About thirty-seven miles to the east of the city is Illimani (21, 188 ft), Bolivia’s most famous peak.
The Illimani and the 21, 080 ft Ancohuma offer great climbing opportunities in the Cordillera Real. Forty-three miles west of the city is the historical ceremonial center of Tiahuanuco, Bolivia’s most important archaeological site. Lake Titicaca is regarded as the highest navigable body of water in the world. This freshwater lake measures one hundred forty-five miles from northwest to southeast and sixty miles from northeast to southwest which also includes 36 islands.
Indian culture is rich and diverse. People give respect to their traditional values and hence its greatness was recognized all over the world. Lifestyle of people living in Village, town and city levels differs a lot. People in villages majorly depend on agriculture and their main source of income is cultivation. Their regular life cycle in terms of earning money is that cultivating two to three ...
Cochabamba, founded in 1574, is Bolivia’s largest market town. It has historical and archaeological attractions, including the 400-year-old cathedral, the Conven to de Santa Teresa and the Museo Arqueolgico. (Fodor’s 105, 120, 125) Blair, David Nelson. The Land and People of Bolivia. New York: J. B.
Lippincott, 1990. Box, Ben, ed. South American Handbook (1995).
Illinois: Passport Books, 1994.
“Customs and Culture.” Andean Rural Health Care. web customs. htm. Online. 29 January 1999. Federal Research Division Library of Congress.
Bolivia: a country study. Washington D. C. : GPO, 1991. Finn Davenport, Into Howard, and Chelsea S.
Mauldin, eds. Fodor’s: South America, 3 rd ed. New York: Fodor’s Travel Publications, Inc. , 1997.