1. Give a complete, correct, bibliographic citation for your paper (see pages 111-113 of McMillan for examples; use the format discussed in lab).
Roberts KJ, Anderson RC. 2001. Effects of garlic mustard [Alliaria petiolata (Beib. Cavara &
Grande)] extracts on plants and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi. Illinois: Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University. Am Midl Nat. 146: 146-152.
2. What was the major finding of this paper? Do not simply re-write the abstract. Be sure you understand the results and their interpretation. (6 points)
Garlic Mustard prevented the germination of spores of Gigaspora Rosea, as well as reduced its ability to bond with tomato seeds, and reduced the germination of the seeds on their own. Garlic mustard also shortened the root length of tomato and sorghum seedlings. Within the field experiments, and extreme negative correlation was found between the amount of garlic mustard (density) and the mycorrihizal inoculums potential; a thing partly responsible in soil nutrition and plant growth. These findings suggest that garlic mustard likely interferes with plant growth and development, as well as competition between non-invasive and invasive species.
3. Did the authors indicate why their finding was important (tie it in to the “big picture”)? If yes, why was their finding important? (5 points)
The Term Paper on Planet And Prince
1. Prologue In the novella The Little Prince, Saint- Expery explored the thought of taking things for granted. He first sent the prince away from his own planet because the flower was using him for her advantage and not being nice about it. The prince feeling not at all happy with her left and visited other planets. But the prince also to the flower for granted once he realized that his flower ...
Yes, the authors indicate the tie back to our environment within the discussion. In areas where there are already soil disturbances, garlic mustard has an easy invasive passage as a non-native species. These intensely disturbed regions more commonly support non-mycorrhizal plant species which contribute to the reduction of soil inoculums levels important to the development of mycorrhizal species. This slows the rate of production of future mycorrhizal species, as well as reduces biodiversity within invaded regions. This is due to species inability to develop in the low MIP regions. The mustard also has compounds dominant to those of many other species, making their reproduction even more slowed. The garlic mustard is also responsible for the production of some allelochemicals which are released into the soil. These allelochemicals make it impossible for some mycorrhizal species to prosper, and give some invasive species and garlic mustard plants advantages in their ability to develop.
4. Did the authors state one or more hypotheses and make predictions? Explain (and indicate what they were).
Also, was a control group included in the study? If yes, what was the control? (10 points)
No clear hypothesis seems to exist, although the purpose of the experiment is stated clearly at the end of the introduction.
1) The first control within “The effect of garlic mustard leachate on the germination of Gigaspora rosea azygospores” was a mixture of water and agar containing a defined plant culture medium. This was prepared in a 10ml dish with no garlic mustard leachate and distilled water.
2) The next control was within “The effect of garlic mustard leachate on the colonization of tomato” in which 10 replicated bottles were made not containing 50% leachate, but only 1 tomato seedling and 4 Gigaspora rosea spores on agar-based semi-solid plant culture medium in 100 ml bottles.
3) The next control within “The effect of garlic mustard leachate on the germination and root growth of monocot and dicots” consisted of 10 100 ml glass bottles containing 10 ml of plant culture medium rather than 50% leachate, with two sorghum seeds placed on top. Also, 5 ml of medium without leachate was poured into 10 ml petri dishes and replicated 5 times. These contained 5 sterile tomato seeds on each.
The Research paper on Need of a Strengthened Species Act
There lived a bird called Passenger Pigeon in North America. A century ago people could see them in thousands or even in millions. Sadly, there are very few of them left today. The species called passenger pigeons was becaming extinct like many other species. Obviously, there were no laws to protect endangered species, resulting in the large scale destruction of the native habitat. Providing ...
4) In the final experiment, there were control variables, however, because it was a field experiment, there was no given control group.
5. If you were to design a study to follow-up on this research, what would you do? Explain your answer. (5 points)
If I were to do a follow up experiment, I would focus more on the field experiment and compare the biodiversity within a disturbed region containing garlic mustard versus a disturbed region without traces of garlic mustard, as well as a healthy region. All three should be within the same general region and be of the same type of ecological system. Using quadrats, I would lay out a 50 by 50 ft. square to be examined and use a random number generator to determine 20 different areas to lay down the quadrat. From that, I would count the number of different species found within 100% of the quadrat as well as determine the percentage that each species covered on its own (Simpson biodiversity calculation).
Then I would compare these percentages to each of the other two regions.